Chapter 26: The Cold War

Which of the Allies were most concerned with preserving their spheres of influence in the postwar world?
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Which of the following actions at Potsdam confirmed that Germany would remain divided?Truman refused to allow the Russians to claim reparations from the American, French, and British zones of Germany.Which of the following describe the vision of the postwar world that appealed to Roosevelt and many other Americans?- an international organization serving as arbiter of disputes and protector of every nation's right of self-determination - nations governing their relations with one another through democratic processesUpon what faulty premise was the doctrine of containment based?that communists sought to spread their ideology in a global revolutionThe United Nations Security Council, which was created at the Yalta conference, was to include permanent representatives from which five nations?the United States, Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and ChinaContainment was criticized by conservatives for beingtoo weak a response.The administration of Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek was known for its- hostility toward Mao Zedong. - corruption. - lack of popular support.At a conference in Potsdam in July 1945, Trumanallowed Stalin to adjust the German-Polish border.The Marshall Plan was motivated, in part, by which of the following?- a desire to improve the market for U.S. exports - a desire to ensure that Europe would not be an economic drain on the United States - humanitarian concernIn 1948, during heightened tensions with the Soviets, the United Stateselevated nuclear weaponry to a central place in its military arsenal.Faced with the threat of further Soviet expansion, the Truman administration developed the policy known ascontainment.NATO was founded bya coalition of twelve nations.Many conservative Americans believed that containment was akin toappeasement.The Cold War intensified in 1949 withthe first successful test of an atomic weapon by the Soviet Union.An integral part of the containment policy was toaid the economic reconstruction of Europe.Reconversion resulted in increased job opportunities forwar veterans.The National Security Act of 1947 reshaped the nation's military and diplomatic institutions, leading to the establishment of which of the following?- National Security Council - Central Intelligence Agency - Department of DefenseThe agreement that formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization- declared that an attack on one member nation was an attack on all. - called for the maintenance of a standing military force in Europe.Truman's Fair Deal proposals included which of the following?- government health insurance - public housing and slum clearance - an expansion of Social Security benefitsWhat became known as the "China Lobby" formed around which ideas?- The State Department was primarily responsible for the defeat in China. - The U.S. could have done more to prevent China from going to the communists.Which of the following is most accurate regarding the Democratic convention in 1948?The Democrats were abandoned by two factions, one liberal and the other conservative.Truman supported the corrupt and incompetent government of Chiang Kai-shek becausehe was afraid of a communist takeover of China.True or false: In 1949, Truman was able to get Congress to pass a national health insurance program.FalseBitter strikes in the ______ industries required Truman's intervention in 1946.coal and railroadA 1948 public opinion poll revealed that a majority of Americans believed atomic power woulddo more good than harm in the long run.The Truman administration increased its support for military atomic research in the postwar period for which of the following reasons?The United States was unable to come to terms with the Soviet Union on an international nuclear weapons treaty.The results of the 1946 electionsmade Truman's efforts to pass the Fair Deal more difficult.Henry A. Wallace, a former vice president, wasthe Progressive Party's nominee in 1948.In Korea at the end of the war, the United States and the Soviet Uniondivided the nation between them along the 38th parallel.After his election in 1948, Truman was able to pass some Fair Deal reforms becauseDemocrats controlled both houses of Congress.By mid-1951, the conflict in Korea had turned into a(n)protracted stalemate along the 38th parallel.The fear of nuclear weapons and nuclear destructionappeared widely in popular culture.True or false: The National Security Act of 1947 sharply restricted the ability of the president to shape foreign policy.FalseIn the United States, the Korean War resulted in which of the following?- rising insecurity about America's position in the world - economic growth - anxiety over communismIn 1947, when it began a famous series of investigations, the House Un-American Activities Committee wasdominated by Republicans.By the end of 1945 the Korean peninsula had been occupied by troops fromthe United States and the Soviet Union.The McCarran Internal Security Actwas opposed by Truman.China entered the warwhen American forces neared the Chinese border.McCarthy's first investigations targetedthe State Department.By the late 1940s the use of nuclear power for electricity generation wasviewed positively by the public, and plants were springing up in many areas of the country.Who was the Democratic candidate in the presidential election of 1952?Adlai E. StevensonWhen Truman intervened in a steel strike in 1952,his actions were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.Much of the anticommunist furor in the United States emerged frompolitically motivated attacks by the Republicans on the Democrats.The federal loyalty program wasinitiated by Truman.During Joseph McCarthy's investigation into alleged subversion in government,he never produced conclusive evidence that any federal employee was a communist.Which of the following best describes the results of the 1952 elections?The Republicans took control of the White House and both houses of Congress.The first target of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) wasthe movie industry.