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Chapter 12 Review 1
Terms in this set (66)
What is a collision involving one or more vehicles causing property damage, personal injury, serious bodily injury, or dead?
What is a road divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic?
What is a highway the Department of Transportation designates as a state-maintained road?
A state road
One legal definitions of an intersection?
The area within the connection of the lateral curbs or boundary lines of two or more roadways of two highways joined at approximately right angles or any other angle that may connect the two roads
Where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, every crossing of each roadway of the divided highway by an intersecting highway is a separate intersection
another definition of an intersection
What are some injuries you might respond two when responding to a traffic crash?
Bleeding and soft tissue injuries, Burns, Chest, abdominal, and genital injuries, Extremity injuries, Puncture wounds, shock, Spinal, head and neck injuries
What are the six legal traffic crash injury categories?
None, possible injury, non-incapacitating injury, incapacitating injury, fatal injury, nontraffic fatal injury
Non-incapacitating injury -
visible or nonvisible injury or complaints of injury that probably do not require emergency transport from the scene
Incapacitating injury -
visible signs of bodily injury that have a risk of death, serious disfigurement, or loss/impairment of limbs or organs that requires emergency transport
Fatal injury -
an injury causing death within a 12-month period after the traffic crash
Nontraffic fatal injury -
a fatality unrelated to the traffic crash (such as seizure/stroke)
If there is a fire, you will have to evacuate people to a safe location. What factors should you consider when selecting a safe location?
Traffic, Weather and wind direction, Building in the area affected by the crash
If a traffic crash involves hazardous materials, how should you enter the crash scene?
With extreme caution
What is the first even during a traffic crash that caused injury or property damage?
First harmful event
What does the first harmful event determine?
The jurisdiction of the scene
What is your primary tool for controlling traffic in a scene?
Your police vehicle. It helps protect the scene, prevent additional crashes, and redirect traffic
Where should you park your vehicle at a traffic crash?
In a safe location clearly visible to oncoming traffic, away from hazards, and avoids damaging other evidence
Wearing a reflective vest makes you more visible. What should you be sure of when wearing a vest over your uniform?
You still have access to your gun belt
If you don't have cones or flares, how can you create a warning for other drivers of a crash?
Park your vehicle near the scene with the emergency lights activated
If there's no safe way to protect the scene using barricades, flares, fuses, signs, or traffic cones, what should you do?
Create a roadblock
What is the first phase of a traffic crash?
Pre-collision phase - the driver becomes aware of a danger/hazard
What is any action the driver takes to alter the speed or direction of a vehicle or to avoid danger/hazard, such as braking, turning, or moving the vehicle?
What is the length of time between the point of perception and the beginning of the evasive action?
What is the point in time when the crash is inevitable, regardless of evasive action?
Point of no escape
What is the second phase of a traffic crash?
At-collision phase - the time of the initial impact or contact
What occurs when vehicles, property, or people begin to enter the same space at the same time and make contact, and where the first injury or damage may occur?
What is the third phase of a traffic crash?
Post-collision phase - when the vehicles, property, or people separate (naturally or from intervention by a person)
What refers to vehicle movement during and after a collision?
What is the location of the first harmful event, or the first damage-producing event in the traffic crash?
Area of collision (AOC)
What does the AOC help you determine?
The direction of travel and the probable location of vehicle debris
What is any damage existing on a vehicle before the crash?
How can you identify preexisting damage?
It does not fit the patter of the crash and appears rusted, dirty, or weathered
What is any damage that did not exist on a vehicle before the crash?
Contact damage (this results from direct pressure of a collision or rollover)
How can you identify contact damage?
Scrape marks on the body, Material rub-off, such as paint, rubber, or tree bark, Fiber transfer, such as clothing, hair, blood, Punctures or imprints
What is a cut into the surface of the road where part of the vehicle removed road surface material?
What is a broad area of a hard surface covered in scratches, striations, or streak marks made by sliding metal parts?
What is a pool or trail of fluids escaping from a vehicle because of impact?
What is loose material spread across the road due to the crash?
Debris (such as dirt, liquids, vehicle parts)
The area of collision (AOC)
What can matching the damage on the vehicles to the debris help you determine
How long are incipient skid marks and anti-lock braking system scuff marks typically visible for on the road?
What are skid marks that have long gaps of more than 15 feet between them?
Intermittent skid marks
What causes intermittent skid marks?
Drivers who rapidly apply the brakes and release them
What are the only items of evidence that pinpoints the exact location of the area of collision?
Offset skid marks
What is a type of trench dug by locked tires moving across a soft surface such as gravel, sand, grass, or dirt?
What occurs when a vehicle loses tire traction from entering a curve too fast or from oversteering?
A scuff or yaw mark
Accelerating marks are caused from rapid acceleration from a stop (peeling out). What do they look like?
Dark tire marks that gradually fade
When should you photograph the crash scene?
After the emergency is under control, but before someone can disturb evidence or alter the scene
What are some instruments that can be used to measure evidence?
Rolling measuring wheels, Fiberglass and steel measuring tapes, Laser measuring devices
What are some common mistakes that affect accurate measuring?
Identifying the wrong type of surface where the skid marks were made, Incorrectly identifying the beginning of a skid mark, Including gaps when measuring the skid
What is a rough drawing of the scene?
Field sketch (this uses simple symbols to indicate the details of the crash)
If two drivers are involved in a traffic crash, what are two things they are required by state law to do?
Exchange information, Provide information to the nearest law enforcement agency within 10 days
What kind of information are drivers required to provide?
Name, Current address, Driver's license (or permit) number, Registration number, Insurance information
What kind of violation is a direct cause of a traffic crash?
Contributing traffic violation
What is one contributing traffic violation?
Driving too fast (the rest are on page 549)
What is a violation that has no direct bearing on the cause of the traffic crash?
Noncontributing traffic violation (such as seat belt, expired license plate, etc.)
What is a criminal offense discovered during the traffic crash investigation?
Nontraffic violation (like finding drugs in the car)
It is the responding officer's duty to return a crash scene to the same condition before the crash. What is one way that can be done?
Removing hazards and debris from the road
Before leaving the scene, what should you be sure to do?
Scan for any equipment left behind (tape measure, blanket, flashlight, cones), Verify the road is safe for normal traffic flow, Contact the appropriate agency to repair/replace any traffic control signs/devices
If you're drawing a field sketch by hand, what should you use to make it more professional?
How should crash scene diagrams be drawn?
Bird's-eye view (as if looking down on the scene)
If you're using a template and there is extensive damage to vehicles or property, what should you do?
Draw the damage, debris, or other details freehand
What is a common error that officers tend to make when completing traffic crash forms?
Using military time as opposed to the 12-hour clock system (the rest of the errors are on page 556)
Crash scenes aren't always accidental. What else can they be?
The result of criminal activity, such as hit-and-run and DUI drivers
Drivers can provide information about a crash to law enforcement without having it used against them in a criminal case. Statements provided during a civil investigation cannot be used in a criminal trial. What is this called?
—any indication of complaints or discomfort by anyone involved in the traffic crash
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