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COGS 17 Lectures 2a - 2b
Terms in this set (80)
The cell body
Source of energy to power metabolic activity
Built of bilayer of phospholipid molecules
Use RNA instructions to build proteins
Site of Dna
Provide nutrients to & recycle from neurons
Guide the migration of neurons during fetal development
Myelinate cells in the PNS
Arms insulate neurons in the CNS
Line the ventricles, oozing CSF
Runaway regeneration (brain tumor)
Single branch, carrying signal that leads to release of NT
Where exocytosis occurs
Multiple branches, for recieving input from other cells
Pores in the cell membrane, that control the out/influx of ions
A difference in the number ions, of a given type, inside vs. outside the cell
Random motion of molecules, that results in their spreading to equally fill a space
A difference in the net (summed) charge, inside vs. outside the cell.
The repulsion between like charges - e.g. positive repels positive.
When there is a significant difference in charge, across the membrane
Greater concentration outside of cell
Greater concentration inside of cell
Difference in charge across membrane
Sodium-Potassium Pump collects 3 of these ions, for each 2 of the other type that it ejects
T/F of Action Potential : Always begins at the "Axon Hillock"
T/F of Action Potential: First Na+ leaves the cell.
T/F of Action Potential: The movement of Sodium ions results in a local depolarization, to about +50mV
T/F of Action Potential: Next K+ leaves the cell.
T/F of Action Potential: The movement of Potassium ions results in a shift in polarization to about -70mV.
T/F of Action Potential: When an influx of K+ reaches the end of the axon, the cell will fire.
T/F of Action Potential: A change in polarity at the terminal causes Ca++ gates to open, and Ca++ enters the cell.
All or nothing release of NT
Also called a "spike"
Is often the result of the summation of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs
greater or lesser release of NT
Can result in the release of either excitatory or inhibitory NT
Nodes of Ranvier
When an axon is is wrapped by glia cells, speeding up its signal
When excited electrons "instantaneously" jump from atom to atom, within an insulatedmedium
When whole, charged atoms flow through pores in the cell membrane
Sustain ionic conduction between myelin sheaths, boosting nerve impulse for subsequent electrical conduction
In a myelinated cell, nerve impulse "jumps" from node to node
Degeneration of myelin prevents action potential, since exposed membrane has no ion channels
T/F of Synapse: The Post-Synaptic cell releases NT into the Synaptic Cleft.
T/F of Synapse: Neurotransmitter is released in a process called "Exocytosis".
T/F of Synapse: Vesicles packed with NT attach to the membrane of the Pre-Synaptic cell.
T/F of Synapse: Exocytosis is triggered by the influx of Ca++ ions at the terminal.
T/F of Synapse: When NTs are released, they will often bind to Receptor Sites on the dendrites of the Pre-Synaptic Cell.
T/F of Synapse: In most cases, neurotransmitter will detach from their receptor sites, after impacting the polarity of the cell.
Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential
Post-Synaptic cell becomes hypo- (less) polarized.
Often from Na+ entering the cell
Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential
Post-Synaptic cell becomes hyper- (more) polarized
Often from Cl- entering the cell
Moves neuron farther from its threshold for firing
Metabolic processes in post-synaptic cell are responsible for opening ion gates.
Involve the activation of a Second Messenger
Best for setting sustained conditions in a brain area
Receptor sites, fitted with neurotransmitters, themselves serve as ion gates.
Effects are rapid, short-lived
Best for sending info about changing imputs
Most abundant excitatory NT
Most abundant inhibitory NT
At neuromuscular junctions, and within brain for arousal
Iono- or Metabotropic, many functions including mood regulation
For alerting the brain, orienting to the unexpected
Many functions, from reinforcement to motor control
Chemical or process that increases effectiveness of NT
An AChE-blocker, for ACh
A Serotonin re-uptake blocker, since serotonin is re-uptaken whole
Black-widow spider venom, for ACh
Chemical or process that decreases effectiveness of NT
A Choline re-uptake blocker, since Acetate alone cannot attach to receptor site
Prevents the packaging of NT into a vessicle
T/F of other factors: Copies of stretches of DNA, called RNA, code for the production of critical proteins.
T/F of other factors: With experience, dendritic spines are pruned back, and so there are fewer dendrites in well-trained brains.
T/F of other factors: Kinesin molecules transport NT manufactured in the soma along the axon to the terminal.
T/F of other factors: Receptor sites can be blocked by NT "mimics", that either sustain open ion gates, or prevent them
T/F of other factors: All of the amino acids, of which NTs are made, can be produced by the brain itself.
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