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BSC Exam 5
Terms in this set (49)
most of the ATP supplies for a skeletal muscle undergoing prolonged exercise come from _________.
glucose metabolized by aerobic respiration.
elephants hear sounds that are too low pitched for humans to hear. which of the following best explains the differences in sensitivity?
flexibility of the basilar membrane in the cochlea
A given photon of light may trigger an action potential with thousands of times more energy. Which of the following is often involved in the amplification of the signal strength in a sensory cell?
what type of receptor is most likely activated in the antennae of a moth when detecting pheromones?
in the olfactory receptor cells of mammals, what binds to specific odorant molecules?
G protein-coupled receptor proteins
What happens when moving fluid in the semicircular canals encounters a stationary cupula?
in a mammalian visual system, where is visual information processed and integrated?
the cerebral cortex
the visual information used by bees includes elements that are not apparent to humans, which are ___________.
the ability to see into the ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum
upon returning to its hive, how does a European honeybee communicate to other worker bees the presence of nearby food sources?
they perform a special dance
the key idea of sociobiology is that ___________.
social behavior is an expression of genes that have been perpetuated by natural selection.
*behavior has a genetic basis, and thus can evolve.
every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. after a few weeks, he noticed that the fish swam to the top of the tank when he entered the room. Which of the following mechanisms results in this behavior?
some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. What mechanism results in this behavior?
what correlates with the color of the throats of males in a population of side-blotched lizards?
the success of the mating behavior of each of the throat-color phenotypes
the head-butting behavior of male bighorn sheep helps to establish a mating hierarchy. which of the following is illustrated by this behavior?
a learning process that can occur only during a limited period of the individual's development is called _____________.
You wake up in the middle of the night to use the restroom. You cannot see a thing in the dark and do not want to turn on lights, disturbing others sleeping near you. You have navigated your way to the restroom from your bed many times, and try to do so again. Which of the following most likely helped you remember your way?
Which of the following describes the process by which white-crowned sparrows learn the "crystallized" song for their species?
by listening to adult sparrow songs during a sensitive period as a fledgling, followed by a practice period until the juvenile matches its melody to its memorized fledgling song
Which of the following investigations is an example of the study of an abiotic factor?
-observing interactions among various organisms in a rainforest canopy.
-investigating how the amount of annual precipitation affects the distribution of a tree species.
-identifying food sources for an egret population.
-the relationship between finch beak size and food availability on two different Galapagos Islands.
-investigating how an elk population competes for food
investigating how the amount of annual precipitation affects the distribution of a tree species.
Which of the following biotic or abiotic factors limit(s) the range of Saguaro cactus in North America?
-precipitation and temperature
-all of the above
all of the above
why are experiments involving transplanting species seldom conducted today?
the transplanted species are often disruptive to their new communities.
Which of the following environmental conditions poses/presents the strongest physiological challenge for a fish swimming into an estuary from a river?
the change in water solute content would challenge the osmotic balance of the fish.
what is the cause of generalized global air circulation and precipitation patterns?
solar radiation that warms moist air masses near the equator, which then cool and release precipitation as they rise, and then, at high altitude, move north or south of the tropics and sink back to the surface as dry air masses
the main reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is that ___________________.
solar radiation strikes the poles at a lower angle and travels through more atmosphere.
Coral reefs occur on the southeast coast of the United States, near Florida, but not at similar latitudes on the southwest coast near Los Angeles. Differences in which of the following most likely account for this?
water temperatures driven by ocean currents
what is responsible for the differences in summer and winter temperature stratification of deep temperate zone lakes?
water is most dense at 4 C.
If an ecologist were studying the regional interactions among multiple populations of different species, and how they influence the exchange of materials between their various environments, which of the following best represents this scale of research?
In a field of corn or lettuce on a farm, plants are cultivated with uniform spacing that will maximize plant growth. In natural habitats however, a uniform pattern of dispersion is much less common. While exceptions do exist, for example in populations of creosote bush in the desert, which of the following best explains why natural populations of plants usually exhibit clumped or random dispersion patterns?
patterns of higher soil moisture, the concentration of soil nutrients, and the distribution of seeds from parent plants may be highly variable
Which example best illustrates a semelparous, K-selected species?
a red-winged black bird that typically raises three clutches of eggs per season in a wetland habitat with competition for nesting sites
Which of the following examples best illustrates ecological succession?
-Introduced pheasants increase, and native quail populations disappear.
-A mouse eats seeds, and an owl eats the mouse.
-Grass grows on a sand dune, is replaced by shrubs, and then by trees.
-Overgrazing causes a nutrient loss from soil.
-Decomposition in soil releases nitrogen that plants can use.
grass grows on a sand dune, is replaced by shrubs, and then by trees.
What is an explanation supporting the tendency of tropical communities to have greater species diversity than temperate or polar communities?
tropical communities have higher sunlight and precipitation, and are generally older than temperate or polar communities.
What is the consequence of white-band disease in Caribbean coral reefs?
algal species take the place of the dead coral, and the fish community is dominated by herbivores
Dwarf mistletoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest trees. They obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of the trees. The trees derive no known benefits from the dwarf mistletoes, yet they are sometimes negatively affected by this interaction. Which of the following best describes the interactions between dwarf mistletoes and trees?
Character displacement differs from resource partitioning because character displacement ________.
is directly linked to the evolution of genotypes that have allowed alternate resource use.
The producers in aquatic ecosystems include organisms in which of the following groups?
All of the listed responses are correct.
all of the listed responses are correct.
As part of the carbon cycle, which of the following reservoirs of carbon is the largest?
What advantage would there be for an ecosystem ecologist to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) instead of net primary production (NPP)?
NEP represents the amount of energy from light converted to chemical energy, minus the energy used by all organisms for cellular respiration, which could indicate whether or not carbon is being stored.
what are the main forms of energy inputs and outputs that move through an ecosystem?
sunlight and heat
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding mineral nutrients in soils and their implication for primary productivity?
-Adding a nonlimiting nutrient will stimulate primary productivity.
-Globally, phosphorous availability is most limiting to primary productivity.
-Alkaline soils are more productive than acidic soils.
-Phosphorous is sometimes unavailable to producers due to leaching.
phosphorous is sometimes unavailable to producers due to leaching
what is not recycled within an ecosystem?
Which of the following best explains the need for a constant influx of sunlight to sustain Earth's biosphere?
energy from sunlight moves through ecosystems, but is lost as heat
Which of the following is the main purpose of movement corridors?
to connect two isolated populations
Which one of the following is most likely to be a hot spot of biodiversity for birds?
Eastern North America
edge species ___________.
may require conditions found in both of the bordering ecosystems
Which of the following habitats would most likely have the highest species diversity?
a coral reef
a coral reef
Which of the following does NOT apply to a population with a low effective population size?
-increased genetic diversity
increased genetic diversity
*populations with low effective population sizes are at risk of reduced genetic diversity
Which of the following strategies would most rapidly increase the genetic diversity of a population in an extinction vortex?
introduce new individuals from other populations of the same species
Which of the following statements is the most accurate with respect to the red-cockaded woodpecker populations in the southeastern United States?
the bird requires feeding grounds in and around mature pine forest that are uninterrupted by the structure of other vegetation.
Which of the following statements about protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity is correct?
management of a protected area should be coordinated with management of the land surrounding the area
If all individuals in the last remaining population of a particular frog species were all highly related, which type of diversity would be of greatest concern when planning to prevent the species from going extinct?
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