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Biology Lecture Exam 3 (Activities)
Terms in this set (10)
1. What is a transitional fossil?
2. Which of the following is a tetrapod?
3. Which evidence supports the hypothesis that four-limbed animals came from fish?
4. Why have we NOT found examples in the fossil record of every animal that ever lived on Earth?
5. Why did Shubin and Daeschler search in the Canadian arctic for fossil evidence of the transition from fish to tetrapods?
6. What kind of habitat did tiktaalik live in?
7. Tiktaalik had a combination of fishlike and tetrapod-like characteristics. Which were the tetrapod-like characteristics?
8. How did the great transition from fish to tetrapod occur?
1. Transitional fossils have features that are intermediate between ancestors and descendants.
2. a reptile
3. Fish and four-limbed animals have very similar embryos.
DNA analysis shows that fish are tetrapods' closest relatives.
Both fish and four-limbed animals are vertebrates
The fossil record shows more and more tetrapod-like fish before the appearance of tetrapods about 365 million years ago.
4. Many fossils remain buried. We can only find them when they are exposed by erosion or excavation.
To become a fossil, an animal must remain buried for thousands or millions of years until it (and the layer around it) turns to rock.
To become a fossil, an animal must be quickly and completely buried in ash or sediment before it has a chance to decompose.
5. They hypothesized that the transitional fossils were in sedimentary rocks older than 365 million years ago, when the first tetrapods appear in the fossil record.
6. Tiktaalik lived in a warm, freshwater swamp.
7. interlocking ribs
flat head with eyes on top
8. The transition occurred gradually over time, so there are many intermediate forms.
1. Which of the following traits can be used to differentiate humans from our closest living primate relatives?
2. Louis and Mary Leakey found two different fossil hominid skulls at Olduvai. Which of the following statements about the skulls is true?
3. Which of the following statements supports the conclusion that the common ancestor of modern chimps and modern humans lived around 7 million years ago?
4. Which of the following anatomical features of the 3.2-million-year-old Australopithecus fossil known as "Lucy" suggest she was a bipedal hominid?
5. How do scientists know that the hominid called "Ardi" is about 4.4 million years old?
6. What did scientists learn from other fossils found in the same sediment layer as Ardi?
7. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding human evolution?
1. bipedality (the ability to walk exclusively on two legs)
large brain size
extensive tool use
2. The second skull represented a species more closely related to modern humans than the first skull's species.
3. Analysis of modern human and modern chimpanzee protein and DNA sequences suggests that their lineages diverged about 7 million years ago.
4. a much shorter hip bone that is broader from front to back and wraps around the side
5. by using radiometric dating techniques on the volcanic deposits found above and below the layer containing Ardi
6. Ardi lived in a woodland habitat
7. The fossil record contains creatures with features that are intermediate between those of modern humans and quadrupedal apes.
In the latest phase of human evolution, there has been a greater reliance on culture.
The first humans evolved in Africa.
1. The 150-million-year-old Archaeopteryx fossil has birdlike features such as feathered wings, but it also has characteristics that we associate with living reptiles. Which of the following are considered reptilian characteristics of Archaeopteryx?
2. Which discovery ultimately overturned the prevailing perception that all dinosaurs were large, slow, and lumbering?
3. Which of the following shared characteristics of living birds and theropod dinosaurs provided support to the hypothesis that birds evolved from dinosaurs?
4. How did Dr. Jack Horner's discovery of dinosaur nesting grounds support the hypothesis that birds evolved from a group of dinosaurs?
5. A key characteristic of modern birds is flight powered by feathered wings. Which of the following pieces of evidence support the hypothesis that the first feathers served a purpose other than flight?
6. Which of the following statements about bird evolution are accurate based on the evidence presented?
7. Why was the discovery of organisms, such as Archaeopteryx, that have a mix of traits usually associated with two different groups considered validation of Darwin's theory of evolution?
1. claws on the ends of each digit in the "hands"
long, bony tail
teeth in the jaws
2. the small theropod dinosaur Deinonychus, which had a large sickle-shaped claw on each of its hind limbs
3. birds and many theropods have feathers
birds and many theropods have a wishbone (or furcula)
birds and theropods have S-shaped necks
birds and theropods have hollow bones that are strong, but light
4. it provided evidence that dinosaurs raised and cared for their young in colonies like many birds
5. some feathered theropods were not capable of flight
6. Feathers may have originally evolved for interspecies communication and display.
Feathers may have originally evolved for insulation.
7. the discovery provided evidence that species descend with modification from other species
1. Which of these primate groups is most closely related to humans?
2. _____ are the oldest known primate group.
3. The primates that spend the most time walking upright are the _____.
4. Which of these anthropoid groups consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?
5. Which of these primate groups lives in trees in Central and South America and have nostrils that are wide open and far apart?
5. new world monkeys
1. Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is false?
2. Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?
3. True or false? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.
4. Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?
5. Which of the following statements about vertebrates is true?
6. Which characteristics define a chordate?
7. Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?
1. All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.
4. Their body plan
5. The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.
6. The presence of four specific morphological traits
7. Pharyngeal gill slit
1. Xylem is indicated by the letter _____.
2. The letter A indicates the _____.
3. The letter A indicates the _____.
4. The letter A indicates the _____.
5. Ground tissue is indicated by the letter _____.
6. The region surrounded by guard cells is indicated by the letter _____.
1. secondary growth NEVER occurs in _____.
2. _____ provides cells for secondary growth.
3. The letter A indicates _____.
4. Vascular cambium forms wood toward the stem's _____ and secondary phloem toward the stem's _____.
5. What is the function of cork?
6. How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained?
2. Vascular cambium
3. secondary xylem
4. center ... surface
5. insulation and waterproofing
6. by the division of its cells
1. Which of the following is not a type of primary meristematic cell found in apical meristems?
2. Which structure determines the direction of root growth by sensing gravity?
3. True or false? Plant growth involves both the production of new cells by mitosis and the expansion of cell volume.
4. Which of the following statements about the vascular cambium is true?
5. Why do plants need secondary growth?
6. Which of the following parts of a plant remains on the plant even after several years of growth?
7. True or false? Primary growth can occur at both the apical and lateral meristems at the tips of the roots and stems in a plant.
1. Vascular cambium
2. Root cap
4. It is a layer of undifferentiated cells that develops into secondary xylem and phloem.
5. To provide structural support for the plant
6. Primary xylem
1. The channels indicated by the pointer, are _____.
2. Which of these are symbiotic associations?
3. In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____.
4. _____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.
5. _____ bonds are responsible for the cohesion of water molecules.
6. _____ cells are the cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata, thus playing a role in regulating transpiration.
3. Casparian strip ... endodermis ... xylem
1. Which tissue acts as a filter on the water absorbed by root hairs?
2. True or false? Root pressure can move water a long distance up the xylem because of the higher water potential of the xylem in comparison to the water potential in the surrounding cells.
3. Which of the following statements about the distribution of sap throughout a plant is true?
4. Which term describes an area where sugars are used or stored?
5. Which of the following statements about xylem transport is true?
6. What characterizes the rates of photosynthesis and transport in a plant on a dry cloudy day?
7. True or false? The rate of sugar transport in a plant depends on the rate of photosynthesis, the rate of transpiration, and the difference in turgor pressure between the source and the sink.
3. The mechanism that explains the movement of sugars throughout a plant is called the pressure-flow hypothesis.
5. Water and minerals move through the root cortex into the xylem and upward through the stem and into leaves.
6. Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are low.
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