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Metabolism and nutrition
Terms in this set (27)
The sum of all biochemical reactions that take place in the human body at any given time is called __________.
_____ATP molecules are produced via the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
What part of a triglyceride undergoes β-oxidation?
The release of urea in the urine is a mechanism for the body to get rid of itself of:
Why do diets with extremely low in carbohydrates often cause people to experience mental "fogginess" and decreased mental stamina?
Neurons rely on glucose for ATP
The hormone insulin stimulates
A condition for measurement of the BMR is that the individual is not under physical or emotional stress. How might physical or emotional stress affect the metabolic rate?
It will increase sympathetic nervous activity which thereby will increase metabolic rate.
As a way to conserve glucose for the cells of the nervous system during glucose sparing, the body preferentially catabolizes:
The minimum energy expenditure of an awake, alert person is called __________.
basal metabolic rate
Heat is exchanged between the body and the environment by all of the following mechanisms EXCEPT:
Which statement is TRUE regarding complete proteins?
Complete proteins provide all of the essential amino acids.
Which of these vitamins is water-soluble?
If NADH and FADH2 fail to be oxidized as part of the electron transport chain (ETC), what is affected?
the electromotive force required to drive the electron transport chain (ETC)
What term best summarizes ATP hydrolysis?
When a substance or molecule is reduced, it __________.
Why does the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled increase when exercising?
The muscles utilize the ATP at greater amounts, and they need to undergo aerobic respiration to synthesize more ATP.
Complete the formula for glucose catabolism (cellular respiration): C6H12O6 + ___ ⇢ 6H2O + 6CO2 + _____+ heat
6O2; 38 ATP
What ions are pumped against their concentration gradient from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space during the electron transport chain (ETC)?
What two products can be generated from the transamination of an amino acid?
a carbon skeleton and the amino acid glutamate
Which of the following does NOT occur during the absorptive state that occurs right after feeding?
gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
Determine the effect of inadequate insulin on the absorptive state.
Anabolic processes will be impaired
What hormone suppresses the appetite?
The metabolic rate increases __________.
with increased muscle mass
What percentage of the total caloric intake should be saturated fats?
no greater than 10%
Select the two factors upon which body mass index depends.
height and weight
Thermoregulation involves a steady core body temperature near:
37.5 °C (99.5 °F)
The majority of the body's energy is stored as:
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