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This is the vocab from chapters 1-5 that are on our study guide.


all the elements that make up people's way of life


means "land between two rivers"; between Tigris and Euphrates; in present day Iraq; unpredictable flooding

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

rivers with unpredictable flooding near Mesopotamia that supplied fertile soil

cultural diffusion

the spread of ideas (usually through trade)

Nile River

river in which ancient Egypt settled near; supplied fertile land (silt); called "river of sorrows"

Huang He/Yellow River

river located near China


belief in one god

mandate of heaven

idea of divine right, empire's right to rule by god

Silk Road

500-mile road from China to fertile crescent; was used to exchange new foods/goods

civil service exam

test people took in order to get a job in the government


art/literature flourished;direct democracy;very different from Sparta (opposite)


little art/literature; life was based on the military; ruled by military dictator; boys at age 7 entered military school, girls exercised (could inherit property, ran family estates), slaves (helots) did most of the work; representative democracy

direct democracy

all citizens vote on an issue

Alexander the Great

from Macedonia-educated in greek art, literature & war; conquered Persia, Egypt and all the way to India; spread greek culture throughout the empire

Punic Wars

series of wars in witch Rome tried taking over Carthage

Pax Romana

200 years of Roman Peace (carthage rebuilt, boarders defended, mediterranean peaceful)


German outside invader

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