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Mrs. Hofstadter believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Hofstadter is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) ____________ perspective
What perspective would most likely to ignore the mental processes and to define psychology as the "scientific study of observable behavior
Which type of therapy uses free word association, dream interpretation, and seeks repressed memories?
Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states?
Who would have been most likely to try to define psychology as looking at how people, who are basically good, use free will to choose their behavior.
Behaviorist dismissed the value of
The cognitive perspective is psychology focuses on how
people learn, perceive, think, store and retrieve information
Humanistic psychology focused attention on the importance of
becoming self actualized
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
Professor Stinson believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the _________________ perspective.
Which part of the neuron is responsible for receiving information?
Bundles of myelin-coated axons travel together in "cables" called ______________.
The ___________________ is responsible for the life of the cell.
What is our brain's ability to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma called?
The cells that facilitate communication within your nervous system are called _____________________.
Neuron Scan using radio waves and magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the brain
Scan using radio waves and magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the brain
Part of the brain where our personality is formed and where we can carry out higher mental processes such as planning
Part of the brain most associated with memory
Part of the brain mainly revolves around hearing and selective listening.
Translation of incoming stimuli into neuro signals
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina.
Theory that we process four primary colors combined in pairs.
opponent process theory
The photoreceptors responsible for processing color in the eye
The word we use for the sensation of taste is ___________________.
Visual illusions which the figure and ground can be reversed
Another term for smell is ________________.
Hearing loss caused by problems in the inner ear or in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain.
Sense of location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other.
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
A person's awareness of everything that is going on around him/her at any given moment, which is used to organize behavior
A cycle of bodily sequences that occurs over a 24-hour period
What are the two basic types of sleep?
REM and NREM
According to the lecture, there are ___________ stages of sleep.
Which stage of sleep and dreaming has been called "paradoxical sleep"?
Which of the following is not considered a sleep disorder?
A kind of selective attention is _____________________.
Cocktail party effect
______________ takes place during stages 3 or 4 and is when people walk around in their sleep but have no awareness the next morning.
A night terror is a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified.
What is NOT a method of problem solving?
What is a NOT a PROBLEM of problem solving?
a natural concept is a concept that is defined by specific rules or features
Mental images _________________-.
have picture like quality
a "rule of thumb" is another name for a ______________.
A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical function.
The "mean" score for the Stanford-Binet IQ assessment is ___________.
What is the standard devetiation for the mean score of intelligence
Which is NOT an attribute of EQ?
The ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
In Pavlov's experiment, the dog food was considered what?
Student is late coming home, is out past curfew, and the parents take away the phone and car.
Also known as or referred to as an operant chamber.
Name of unknown subject in John Watson and Rosalie Raynor's experiment?
Reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired more complex behavior
The disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus s(in classical conditioning) or the removal of the reinforcer (in operant conditioning)
The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is call ____________.
Initial stage of classical conditioning; associates a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
States the opportunity to engage in a preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred
A type of memory containing personal information not readily available to others is _________________.
Type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be "pulled" from memory with very few cues.
Visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second.
Organization of items into familiar, manageable units is known as __________.
containing general knowledge, such as language, learned in formal education is known as ______________________.
Method of transferring information from short term memory to long term memory by making that information meaningful in some way.
Spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods. (We should do this vs. "CRAM" for exams)
According to the lecture, which is NOT a model of memory?
sensory parallel processing model
Which of the following is the average amount of information that Miller said short-term memory could hold onto?
7 +/- 2
What is the tendency to remember information at the beginning and end of a body in information more accurately than information from the middle?
serial position effect
Type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm.
Research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.
The ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature.
Research design in which several different participants age-groups are studied at one particular point in time.
cross sectional study
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver
the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes.
The theorist most closely associated with psychosexual development.
____________ is the theorist most closely associated with moral development.
____________ is the theorist most closely associated with Cognitive Development.
______________ is the theorist most closely associated with psychosocial development
The tendency of the body to maintain a steady state
states performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high.
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying
biological determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from the person
approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal
theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation
increases in insulin will:
lower blood sugar and trigger hunger
The base need according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs is:
A personality type that a person see's obstacles as a challenges instead of a threat.
A way in which our ego protects us from threatening thoughts in our unconscious is __________________.
This contains the instinctive sexual and aggressive energies that we are born with. When a need arises, we are driven to satisfy it immediately
In psychodynamic theory the part of the mind that identifies with parents and internalizes their beliefs, values and moral restrictions.
The aspect of personality that is present at birth and desires immediate gratification
The part of the mind that attempts to adapt to reality, mediating between the id and superego
Starts developing around the age of three, as we begin to understand that we cannot always have what we want and must satisfy our needs in realistic ways
Develops around six years of age and is the moral part of our personality which is also in the unconscious
The part of the mind that opposes the desires of the ID by giving ethical standards or rules for behavior creating intrapsychic "moral anxiety".
The principle building the ID that seeks to reduce the tension, avoid pain and satisfy desires
Freud's "life force", basic instinctual sexual energy that seeks pleasure of related desires like being warm, well fed, secure and happy
the current diagnosis for a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
a mild/moderate depression that last for two years or more and is typically a reaction to some external stressor.
Known as the common cold of mental health disorders, includes feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
major depressive disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is most often treated with _________________.
light exposure therapy
Seasonal affective disorder is affected most by temperature.
A maladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody, unstable, manipulative, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings toothers
borderline personality disorder
An insight therapy focused on conscious, subjective experiences and people's sense of self. Emphasizes choices and potential to change; all people basically good. Therapy focuses on removing obstacles that block personal growth and potential to self-actualize.
Action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior.
therapies in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts.
What is NOT an advantage to group therapy?
difficult for for shy people
Which of the following does NOT contribute to causing groupthink?
the group is isolated
Which characteristic is NOT a part of In-groups?
weakties of affection
Which psychologist did an extensive study on obedience to authority?
Which of the following is NOT a reason for joining a gang?
recognition of ones family
tendency for a group's predominant opinion to become stronger/more extreme after an issue is discussed
changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
changing one's own behavior to more closely match the actions of others
kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned (dismiss other aglternatives)
reduction of self-awareness and personal responsibility that can occur when a person is part of a group and feels anonymous
Which of the following behaviors is most closely associated with the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
Rachel asks her father for $5, and when he agrees, Rachel asks him for $15 more.
Monica is better at computer games when her friends are watching than when she plays alone. Researchers would explain Monica's behavior using which of the following theories?
changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure.
According to lecture, who is the social psychologist most famously/notoriously linked with deindividuation?
According to lecture, who is the social psychologist most famously linked with conformity?
According to lecture, asking for a large commitment and being refused and asking then for a smaller commitment
door in the face
According to lecture, asking for a small commitment and after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
foot in the door
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n):
The function of the dendrites is to:
receive incoming signals from other neurons
The occipital lobes are to _______________- as the temporal lobes are to ___________________.
The unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis: not a conscious act.
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ____________ nervous system.
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?
After Marcus's recent automobile accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in Broca's area. It is likely that Marcus will have difficulty:
Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ______________lobes.
An axon is:
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
Research that can be replicated; it is consistent. If the researcher conducted the same research in the same way, researchers would get similar results is the sign of;
While Professor Corgiat is in the room watching the students, none of the students attempt any form of cheating. This is most likely due to
the observers effect
According to lecture, which of the following is NOT a step of the Scientific Method?
gather biased data
method of transferring information from Short Term Memory to Long Term memory by making that information meaningful in some way
When an intelligence test measures what it is supposed to, the test is considered to be:
Daniel is enrolled in Italian in college. Over spring break he travels to Italy. However, instead of speaking Italian, Daniel keeps using Spanish words learned as a child and in high school. This is an example of:
When trying to solve a problem, Michael uses a logical, step-by-step formula called a(n)
After forgetting the combination to several other locks, Jack was trying to find a way to remember the combination of his new locker. the combination is 19, 30, 9. To remember the combination, he things of the year 1939. This is an example of:
Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb to help solve problems and reduce mental efforts are called
Auditory memory, usually lasting 2-4 seconds, is known as
Which of the following did extensive study on false positives and the problems with eyewitnesses?
During English class, Maddie is able to recall the author of The Scarlet Letter. This type of memory is called
Suzy recalls the day last summer when she fell off her bicycle and scraped her knee. This is an example of memory
If Kyle tried to learn a long list of words, according to serial position effect, he would be most likely to forget words that
appeared in the middle of the list
A cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed/processed when it is encoded, stored and retrieved
. information processing model
the most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit"
super ordinate concept
Actions or reactions that can be directly observed
Which type of memory is also referred to as working memory
short term memory
In a normal distribution of IQ scores, approximately what percentage of people would be within the first standard deviation?
which of the characters from winnie the pooh and friends would suffer from generalized anxiety disorder
eeyore complains of low energy, no motivation, and period of sadness. what is his diagnosis
major depressive disorder
For 3 months, pooh is having flashbacks, nightmares and is jumpy about tigger attacking him. his diagnosis is
post tramuamic stress disorder
insanity is a legal term used to argue that a defendant is mentally ill ad should not be responsible to rimes
persistent anxiety-provoking thoughts is a common symptom of what diagnosis
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
annette has heard voices narrating his behavior on several occasions. What is Annette experiencing.
if annette is hearing voices or having delusions thinking her psychiatrist may need to treat her for what diagnosis
annete is consider delusional if
believes things that are not real
if a person is worries that they are always sick, they may be suffering from acute stress disorder
what are some of the people who conducted social psychology class
milgram, asch, zimbardo bandura
which is the lowest level of maslows heirchy of needs
what was the order of freuds stage theory
the oral, anal, phallic, and genital stage
accoring to erickson, a toddler is in what stage
autonomy vs shame/ doubt
erickson stage related to early adulthood and the establishment of relationships
intimacy v. isolation
what is the final stage of erickson theory of development
integrity vs. despair
are rooting movement reflexes
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