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Week 1: Hospital Infection Control
Terms in this set (29)
What all does infection control precautions encompass?
health of employees
specific health practices
What is the end goal of infection control precautions?
to prevent healthcare associated infections
infections that a pt would get while receiving healthcare for another condition
healthcare associated infection (HAI)
Transmission of infection in any healthcare setting requires 3 specific elements for it to occur. What are they?
1. source of the germs
2. susceptible host
3. means of transmission
Hospital employees can serve as a source of an infecting microorganism as well as a means of ______
Pts can also serve as the source but also a _______ ______
What are the risk factors of HAI?
4. misuse of antibiotics
5. use of invasive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
9. length of hospitalization
What are ways to prevent HAI?
1. wash hands
2. create an infection control policy
3. identify contagions ASAP
4. provide infection control education
5. use gloves
6. provide isolation-appropriate PPE
7. disinfect and keep surfaces clean
8. change linens daily and when dirty
9. make sure foods are kept at the proper temperatures
What is the single most effective way to prevent spread of infection?
WASH YOUR HANDS!! with soap/running water or hand sanitizer
When washing your hands with soap, what should you remember to do?
1. wet hands with warm or cold clean, running water and apply soap
2. lather hands by rubbing them together w/ soap; make sure to get the backs of hands, b/w fingers, & under nails
3. scrub hands for at least 20 sec
4. rinse hands under running water
5. dry hands w/ towel & turn off water w/ towel
When soap isnt available what is the technique of using alcohol based hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol?
1. apply gel or foam into palm of one hand
2. rub hands together
3. rub product over all surfaces of hands and fingers until hands are dry
"foam in & foam out" of rooms
What is important to remember about using alcohol based hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol?
although acceptable in the health care environment, sanitizers DO NOT eliminate all types of germs, remove harmful chemicals, nor are as effective when hands are visibly dirty
What are the environmental controls?
1. mode of pathogens varies
2. primary management strategy is by following standard and specific precautions
Which precautions should you ALWAYS follow no matter what other precautions are in place?
What are the standard precautions?
1. Treat all pt situations as if they are potentially infectious
- wash hands before and after each and every pt contact
- wear different sets of gloves with each pt.
- use PPE such as a mask, face shield, gown, if contact w/ body fluids possible (blood, urine, feces, emesis, wound exudate, etc)
- follow respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette
- use aseptic technique
it is a mistake to use terminology "universal precautions" it SHOULD be STANDARD precautions
What is the mask requirement now with standard precautions 2.0?
1. 2-layer cloth mask minimum; recent recommendation = 2 layers of mask surgical grade face mask up to an N-95
2. some facilities require eye covers such as glasses, goggles, face shields
occurs when you have direct physical contact with infected person or indirect contact with an object or reservoir
What are examples of contact precautions?
What are the precautions used for contact precautions?
standard precautions + gown & gloves required
- in the case of c-diff, MUST use soap & water for hand hygiene as alcohol based sanitizers do not kill the bacteria
transmission involves contact of the conjunctiva or mucous membranes in nose or mouth w/ large particle droplets (> 5 um) generated from coughing, sneezing, talking, or suctioning
What are examples of droplet precautions?
What are the precautions used for droplet precautions?
standard precautions + mask/face shield
- sometimes an isolation gown if expectation of contact with particles
contagious pathogens transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei that have ability to remain suspended in the air for extended time
What are examples of airborne precautions?
What are the precautions used for airborne precautions?
standard precautions + wear fitted respirator mask + eye protection + isolated gown
wearing different sizes of masks to find one that will be effective for protecting against airborne particles
- the person will be reading a passage during the testing; as well as turning, bending over, squatting; and turning head
What are the COVID-19 precautions?
combines all aspects of prior PPE requirements:
- airborne isolation rooms
- standard precaution + N95 or equivalent or higher-level respirators + eye protection + gloves + isolation gown + hair & shoe covers
for pts with low number of neutrophils (severe = < 500 cells/cubic mm)
What are the precautions for neutropenic?
- wash hands before/after entering pt room
- wear gloves & possibly a mask
- care providers with illness symptoms not allowed
- no fresh fruit/vegetables/flowers allowed in room
What are the precautions for radiation?
- similar to neutropenic
- items brought into room must remain in room for duration of pts stay
- may have time limits for visitors and caregivers d/t radiation exposure
- likely shoe covers, gown, gloves, surgical mask (all of which must be disposed prior to leaving room)
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