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Bio 2 FINAL exam- Demarest
learning catalytic questions
Terms in this set (51)
What are higher plants
vascular seed-producers. Includes gymnosperms ("naked seed" plants, pine trees) and angiosperms (flowering plants, palms, grasses, and dandelions)
are cycads gymnosperms or angiosperms?
_________ and ___________ of a given plant species have the same number of chromosome as its gametophytes do
Spores and Gametes
How do gametophytes produce gametes?
Where would you find antheridia and archegonia?
What do antheridia's produce
What do archegonia's produce
The gametophyte of a certain alga has both archegonia and antheridia. What can be said about this alga?
It's both male and female and monoecious
In the context of the alternation of generations scheme of plant reproduction, what do the terms isomorphic and hetermorphic refer to?
Where the sporophytes and gametophytes look the same (iso) or different (hetero)
where is a spore that is produced inside an ovule?
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Where is the egg found inside and ovule?
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
For a diploid/haploid seed plant, a seed will grow into what?
A 2n sporophyte
Which ones have an ovary?
Which ones produces pollen?
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
What is pollen?
What the sequence of the sex act for gymnosperms?
1. Male gametophyte (pollen grain) reaches the ovule= pollination
2. Pollination triggers the development of the female gametophyte with its egg(s)
3. The male gametophyte releases sperm to the egg= fertilization
What the sequence of the sex act in angiosperms?
1. Male gametophyte reaches the ovule, which contains an already fully developed female gametophyte with the egg= pollination
2. The male gametophyte releases sperm to the egg= fertilization
What's the difference between pollination and fertilization?
pollination: act of the pollen reaching the ovule
fertilization: the act of sperm from the pollen subsequently reaching the egg
What explains why angiosperms invest fewer resources in reproduction generally than do gymnosperms?
- The female gametophyte of angiosperms only consist of very small number of cells, compared to the much larger cell investment required for the female gametophytes of gymnosperms
- Angiosperms have a much higher pollination success rate, so chances are excellent that every gametophyte will ultimately be pollinated anyways
- Angiosperms employ a double fertilization scheme
An angiosperm ultimately consists of how many cells (or nuclei) exactly?
An angiosperm female gametophyte consists of ________ cells and ___________ nuclei
7 and 8
Some plants use the wind to spread their pollen, while others use animals. Which kind of pollen is most likely to spread allergies?
Pollen from wind pollinator plants (wind-spread pollen)
Do wind-pollinated angiosperms still produce flowers?
Yes, but they tend to be much smaller and less conspicuous than animal-pollinated flowers
What are anthers?
male part of the angiosperm flower, responsible for producing pollen
What is the stigma?
female part of the angiosperm flower that catches the pollen
About 88% of angiosperms produce "perfect" flowers, meaning the flowers have both stamens and carpels. What's the big advantage?
it makes pollination by animals more efficient
Are plants that produce flowers monoecious or dioecious?
"one house": each individual plant houses (produces) both the males and female gametes
can either have perfect flowers, or it can carry both the male and female imperfect flowers on one plant
refers to a independent gametophyte that produces both male and female gametes, or a sporophyte that carries both male and female gametophytes which in turn produce gametes
"two houses": each individual plant houses (produces) either male or female gametes, but it's one or the other not both
refers to independent male or female gametophytes, or sporophytes that carry only male or female gametophytes
What would you find inside the seed of a pine tree?
A gametophyte and an embryo
What would you find inside an angiosperm seed?
An embryo and endosperm
-main body of the angiosperm
-produces four spores by meiosis
Suppose we have an angiosperm species in which the sporophyte is normally tertraploid (4n). What will the ploidy of its endosperm do?
What will happen if a 2n sporophyte (1n gametophyte) is crossed with a 4n sporophyte (2n gametophyte)
3n sporophyte will result
In angiosperms, the ovules that are destined to become the seeds are contained inside an ovary. What ultimately happens. What ultimately happens to the ovary, and whats its purpose at that point?
It becomes either fruit or hard shell, for the purpose of either being eaten by animals or protecting the seed from being eaten by animals
Think of peas in a pod. The pods itself consists mainly of what?
nutrient-packed embryonic leaf
nutrient-packed tissue inside the seed
thin layer of tissue coating the seed
the tissue surrounding the seed that forms either fruit or the hard shell (in this case, the pea pod)
Gingko is a gymnosperm that produces fruit. It is similar to the fruit produced by angiosperms in that it surrounds the seed, and for the same reason: to attract animal dispersers. However, Gingko is NOT a flowering plant, and it evolved its fruit independently of the angiosperm line as an example of convergent evolution.
Given that Gingko is a gymnosperm, which of the following is most likely to be true about this fruit?
It is derived from the ovule wall
Why are angiosperms so diverse?
Double Fertilization= angiosperms don't waste as many resources on unfertilized deadbeat ovules
But, ANGIOSPERMS EXPLOIT ANIMALS both for efficient pollination and dispersal
Huge advantage of pollination
targeted pollen delivery- like a postal service
Result of pollination
more efficient and effective reproduction, can have higher mix of species and still find each other for sex
Two main kinds of defenses against herbivores
- spines, thorns, lignin, crystals, sticky latex, etc.
- often stored in vacuoles
-various toxic irritant, and other effects
the brown melanin that forms on a plant wound upon exposure to air; the capsaicin that makes chili pepper seeds hot; the tannins that bind up proteins and give unripe bananas their fuzzy quality; the irritants that are released from cut garlic or onion
Other compounds (alkaloids, terpenes, and many other classes)
Alkaloids: nitrogenous compounds that have a physiological effect on animals (morphine)
Terpenes: volatile hydrocarbons that are released into the air when the plant is injured AKA essential oils
Capsaicin is a phenol present in the fruit of peppers, and is especially highly concentrated in the tissue coating the seeds. Are animals bothered by the capsaicin
some are not
What does a negative value for water potential of a certain area indicate?
It indicates that the area is more water "thirsty" than is pure water
With spring approaching, you apply a good quantity of fertilizer to your lawn and garden. In addition to adding nutrients, what effect would this have on the water potential of the soil?
The water potential of the soil would go down, making it harder for the plant to take up water
Which of the following could a plant do to help it overcome the water problem caused by excessive fertilization?
spend energy to transport dissolved minerals into the roots
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