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ap set 4
Terms in this set (27)
Loose Sentence (n)
Note: Additional information comes at the end.
Examples: "Her parents berated her for her
outlandish behavior, expecting her to conform to
their conservative mores."
"The student felt that her essay was a debacle,
inundated with grammatical errors, convoluted in
its argument, and suffering from a dearth of
Definition: Opposite of periodic sentence; main
clause comes first and then followed by 1 or more
Periodic Sentence (n)
Note: Used for emphasis, suspense or intrigue; or to
focus on cause or reason for main point.
Examples: "Rather than being complacent, she
decided to take action."
"Despite being inundated with homework, he helped
his little brother with his."
"Instead of studying for his AP exam, he played
Definition: Places dependent clause at beginning of
sentence and main clause at end of sentence.
Examples: "The White House held a press
"The pen is mightier than the sword."
"Apple released a new iPhone today."
Definition: Reference to something closely related
to the actual object; using name, attribute or object
closely related to the object or organization
Mood (n)/Atmosphere (n)
Example: The mood of The Jungle is depressing and
"The mood of Invisible Man is surreal and tense at
Definition: Predominant atmosphere or emotional
feeling of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect
Nostalgic (adj)/Nostalgia (n)
Examples: "Adults often feel nostalgic for the
innocence and frivolity of their childhood."
"Hearing certain songs can make people feel
nostalgic for past relationships and times in their
Definition: Feeling of both pleasure and sadness
that is caused by remembering something from the
past and wishing that you could experience it
Objectivity (n)/Objective (adj)
Examples: News articles are supposed to be
"Students must complete A-G course requirements in
order to be able to apply to schools in the Cal State
and UC systems."
Definition: Showing no bias; based on facts and not
feelings or opinions
Example: "Salutations. I beseech you to permit
me to introduce my lowly being as your most
fervent admirer who has followed every nuance
and meander of your laudable existence on this
spherical planet" (i.e., Hi. I think you're
Definition: Excessively "flowery," complex, with
big words as part of writing style; opposite of
concise and simple style
Oversimplification (n)/Oversimplify (v)
Examples: "Raising taxes would eliminate the
"In order to write a good essay, you just need to have
a good thesis statement and topic sentences."
Definition: Simplifying to such an extent as to bring
about distortion, misunderstanding, or error; describe
in a way that does not include all the facts and details
and causes misunderstanding
Oxymoron (n)/Oxymoronic (adj)
Examples: "jumbo shrimp"; "awfully good";
"deafening silence"; "seriously funny";
"bittersweet"; "a definite maybe"
Definition: Combination of words that have
opposite or very different meanings
Example: Speeches tend to have faster pacing,
because of time constraints and the audience's
Adventure and action stories have intense, fast-
actioned pacing in order to pump up the audience's
Definition: Manipulating time in a creative work;
technique used in narratives (storytelling); how
quickly (or slowly) a story unfolds
Example: "The Parable of the Good Samaritan":
The lesson is that our perceived enemy could help
us and love us more than our perceived neighbor.
"The Parable of the Prodigal Son": The lesson is
that God welcomes His children at any time, even
if they once rejected Him.
Definition: Simple, didactic story used to
illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson
Paradox (n)/Paradoxical (adj)
Example: Liar's Paradox: A Cretan sails to Greece
and says to some Greeks who are standing upon the
shore: "All Cretans are liars." Did he speak the truth,
or did he lie? A week later, the Cretan sailed to Greece
again and said: "All Cretans are liars and all I say is
Definition: Statement that appears to be self-
contradictory or opposed to common sense, but, upon
closer inspection, it does possess a certain degree of
truth or validity
Example: Tony Stark from Iron Man 2: "I'm not saying
I'm responsible for this country's longest run of
uninterrupted peace in 35 years! I'm not saying that from
the ashes of captivity, never has a Phoenix metaphor been
more personified! I'm not saying Uncle Sam can kick back
on a lawn chair, sipping on an iced tea, because I haven't
come across anyone man enough to go toe to toe with me
on my best day! It's not about me. It's not about you, either. It's about legacy, the legacy left behind for future
generations. It's not about us!"
Definition: When an idea is deliberately
suggested through a brief treatment of a subject,
while most of the significant points are omitted. It
is explained through the use of this device that
some points are too obvious to mention.
Furthermore, paralipsis is a way of emphasizing a
subject by apparently passing over it.
Parallelism/Parallel Structure (n)
Example: "Here, we have gathered." Here, we
have stood up for our rights. Here, we will
"She enjoys writing, reading and sleeping."
Definition: Grammatical or rhetorical framing
of words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs to give
Examples: Scary Movie mimics other popular horror
movies; Space Balls mimics Star Wars; Austin Powers
mimics James Bond; Shaun of the Dead mimics Dawn
of the Dead
Definition: Work that closely imitates style or
content of another work with specific purpose of comic
effect and/or ridicule; also exploits stylistic peculiarities
of original work
Pedantic (adj)/Pedant (n)
Example: "Her teaching pedagogy is extremely
didactic when, really, she should be integrating
more scaffolding into her classroom instruction."
Definition: Adjective that describes words,
phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly,
academic, or bookish (language that might be
described as bombastic)
Personify (v)/Personification (n)
Examples: "Pink is as laid back as beige, but while
beige is dull and bland, pink is laid back with attitude"
("The Eight-Story Kiss").
"My computer hates me."
"New York—the city that never sleeps."
Definition: Giving inanimate objects a human
characteristic. In contrast, anthropomorphism basically
makes an animal or inanimate object like a human
Point of View (n)
Examples: 1st person; 2nd person; 3rd person;
objective point of view; subjective point of view
Definition: Angle of seeing things, which shows
readers/audience the opinion or feelings of
individuals involved in a situation. In literature,
point of view is mode of narration that author
employs to let readers "hear" and "see" what takes
place in the story.
Polemic (n)/Polemical (adj)
Example: Animal Farm, by George Orwell, is both a
satire and polemic against Stalinism.
Trump often issues polemics against the news media,
Democrats, immigrants and his opponents.
Definition: Strong verbal or written attack against
someone or something; diatribe; rant; invective; tirade;
Example: "The student wrote her essay." ("The
student" is the subject, and "wrote her essay" is
Predicate nominative renames the subject: "The
student is a brown noser."
Definition: Part of sentence that contains the
verbs and says something about the subject.
Examples: of; in; to; for; with; on; at; from; by; about
; as; into; like; through; after; over; between; out;
against; during; without; before; under; around; among
Definition: Word or group of words used with noun,
pronoun, or noun phrase to show direction, location, or
time, or to introduce an object
Prose (n)/Prosaic (adj)
Examples: Novels, plays, short stories, speeches,
letters, biographies and essays are all prose.
Definition: Fiction and non-fiction; any writing that
isn't poetry; prosaic: dull, ordinary; unimaginative
Definition: Information, usually of a biased or
misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a
specific politic cause or point of view
Qualifier/Qualified Assertion (n)
Examples: Thesis statements can include qualifiers
such as "possibly," "potentially," "perhaps," "most
likely," "in certain cases," "almost always,"
"sometimes," "occasionally," "might" "can," "could"
or "under certain conditions."
Definition: An argument with limitations, conditions
or modifications in order to be more realistic or in
anticipation of counterarguments
Rebuttal/Refutation (n) or Rebut/Refute (v)
Examples: Counterarguments in essays and
rebuttals in debates are used to prove opponents
wrong and/or as lacking credibility.
Editorials and opinion pieces are often trying to
refute someone else's argument or position on an
Definition: To rebut means to prove something
as false through argument and/or evidence; to
refute means to prove something as not true
Repetition (n)/Repeat (v)
Example: Florence Kelley's repeated use of the
phrase "while we sleep" in her speech about child
labor in order to insinuate that the adults were
complacent toward little girls working overnight
Upton Sinclair's repeated use of "cog in the machine"
to emphasize how insignificant immigrant workers
were in the grand capitalist machine.
Definition: Repeating words or phrases for emphasis
Reiterate (v)/Reiteration (n)
Examples: "In a post to his Facebook page on
Wednesday, Zuckerberg reiterated Facebook's
stance on this issue: That the company was hurt by
a bad actor who didn't follow the company's
"The speaker seems to be reiterating her earlier
point at the end of her speech in order for her
audience to understand how important it is for
them to remember to vote."
Definition: To state again for emphasis or
repeatedly sometimes with wearying effect
Sets found in the same folder
ap terms set 1
ap terms set 2
ap terms set 3
ap set 5
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