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Understanding Developmentally Appropriate Practices
Terms in this set (55)
What is the Developmentally Appropriate Practice and how does it apply to children + 3 components.
Developmentally Appropriate Practice focuses on children birth to eight years old and is made up of three principle components: age appropriate, individually appropriate, and socially/culturally appropriate.
Teaching is not occasional or accidental, it is intentional. Everything a teacher says and does should be thoughtful, paying close attention to what is said and done to promote learning.
1. Vary teaching strategies to be more appropriate for the group and individual children.
2. Preplanning and organizing the environment with learning goals and objectives in mind. Meeting children where they are and helping them reach challenging and achievable goals.
Three Critical Challenges
1. Addressing differences in school success and achievement/reduce the achievement gap. Educator must DO something, be proactive, read, talk to them everyday.
2. Integrating and aligning preschool and elementary school programming. Create standards to identify what is important for children to know and what they need to be able to do.
3. Improving teacher preparation, professional development and on-site support. Teachers need to know what they are doing and why they are doing it.
Examples of the outcomes of quality child care.
-Lower delinquency rates
-Increased graduation rates
-Adults who earn higher salaries
-Increased home ownership
-Better cognitive and language skills
-Adults who spend less time participating in social programs or on welfare
Disciplinary practices that are prohibited by Florida Statute
-Children shall not be subjected to discipline that is severe, humiliating or frightening.
-Discipline shall not be associated with food, rest or toileting.
-Spanking or any other form of physical is prohibited.
How does the entire community benefit from children receiving quality care?
High quality care helps parents be better employees and it helps employers to retain a stable workforce, which in turn helps the entire community.
The importance of establishing relationships, some ways to establish positive relationships, and some strategies for improving difficult relationships.
-Responsive care giving also includes helping children from secure relationships. Emotional stability begins with the children's abilities to bond and attach to people who care about them and their world. Just as children go through separation anxiety, so do parents.
-Trust is established over time.
-Remember, a caregiver's role is not the same as a parent's. Parents need to know you respect them as the child's first teacher.
How you can help parents adjust.
-Create a brief separation plan for anyone who is in need (new or second time parents).
-Make the parent's departure routine predictable.
-Apply the lesson plan consistently.
-Ask parents about their own separation feelings.
Describe some ways you can increase the bond between you and the children in your care.
-Become "tuned in" to the child.
-Be there everyday for the child, consistency build trust.
-Respond to their needs in a sensitive manner.
-Be responsive and provide comfort and reassurance through quality interactions.
Difficulties with differing values, attitudes and behaviors. Record some strategies you can use to get parents and families more involved in your program.
Difficulties: language barriers, single/grandparent household, cultural differences.
Strategies: provide written information, get translator, invite parents into the classroom, provide childcare for meetings, schedule meeting/phone call at the convenience of the parent.
Based on Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs...
Food to eat is more important than safety. Air to breathe is more important than food to eat. Love and attention is more important than confidence. Clothes to wear is more important than adequacy. Water to drink is more important than stability. Belonging is more important than confidence.
Sensorimotor Stage (Piaget)
Children learn through sensory perception and motor activity. Provide items for the children to explore with their senses.
Preoperational Stage (Piaget)
Children are bound by what they experience directly and not by what they think. Children begin to use symbols (one thing that represents another). For example, using sand to to make a cake.
An example of using language to scaffold is:
At first the caregiver says, "I squeeze a little toothpaste on the toothbrush. You open your mouth and I brush each tooth around and around." Next time, the child is encouraged to squeeze the toothpaste and the caregiver simply observes and makes suggestions, such as "Don't forget your back teeth."
Because children experience similarities in their genetic heritage and their environments, there is not much variation in development among children of the same age. (true or false?)
Infants respond to stimulation and require attention and feedback form caregivers in order to properly develop. (true or false?)
Some children will develop physical skills and abilities earlier than their peers. (true or false?)
Not all children develop through the same sequence of movements. Some children are simply able to walk without ever learning to crawl. (true or false?)
Children who are pushed to develop fine motor skills can become frustrated and have a negative experience. (true or false?)
Children first learn about language by imitating the sounds and words of the people in their environment. (true or false?)
Reading to children does not foster language development because it does not allow children to practice talking. (true or false?)
Children who have had less exposure to words and sounds can become overwhelmed if they are suddenly surrounded by new sounds and rich language. (true or false?)
Language is important to social and emotional development because it helps children to learn to identify their feelings and express their emotions. (true or false?)
Children gain confidence only by experiencing success in learning activities and physical challenges. (true or false?)
Social and emotional development prepares children to form friendships with their peers and bonds with their caregivers. (true or false?)
Children may exhibit some variety in the order in which they progress through the stages of play. (true or false?)
Children sometimes engage in a stage of play that is typical for children of a younger age. (true or false?)
Cognitive development happens when a child begins to use what they have learned to understand the world around them. (true or false?)
Culture is always a positive influence in the cognitive development of a child. (true or false?)
The term "Approaches to Learning,"refers to how a caregiver creates opportunities for children to enjoy the experience of learning. (true or false?)
Children should be constantly praised for their efforts and results in all activities throughout the day, even if they are uninterested or unsuccessful. (true or false?)
Using rewards such as toys and prizes is a good way to encourage positive behavior. (true or false?)
As a caregiver you should encourage children to enjoy learning experiences while also encouraging them to please you with their behavior. (true or false?)
Elements of a positive learning environment:
predictable and well organized environments, both in home and school.
Undesirable elements for a learning environment:
cluttered, confusing, and unpredictable.
The daily schedule should be posted where everyone, including small children, can see it. (true or false?)
The daily schedule does not need to be posted if the children in care are too young to read it. (true or false?)
While mealtimes can be challenging, it is a great opportunity for children to reinforce skills and offer beneficial experiences. (true or false?)
In order to make mealtimes as simple as possible, have everything set up before children arrive, and have everything cleaned up after children have left. (true or false?)
Transitions happen repeatedly throughout the day each time one activity ends and another begins. (true or false?)
You should use many transitions throughout the day. Transitions are a great opportunity for children to practice good behavior. (true or false?)
The role of the observer is to be aware of the social interactions and skill development of each child. This information is used to assess and develop appropriate plans and activities to enhance their experiences and opportunities.
The programmer helps implement Developmentally Appropriate Practice by making critical decisions when it comes to selecting materials, supporting interactions, designing curriculum and adjusting instruction.
The teacher is the facilitator of social interaction and skill development. The teacher helps children learn by establishing limits and boundaries and by helping children develop a sense of community.
The discipliner is the guide/builder of responsibility and internal focus of control. Using effective strategies that include natural and logical consequences and positive guidance helps children begin to see how they are responsible for their own actions.
A nurturer is someone who fosters a child's sense of self through encouragement. This role ensures that children have their physical needs met while also supporting their social-emotional well-being.
From this viewpoint, you begin to think about the overall fitness of the entire center, each classroom, and the children individually.
A networker is one who reaches beyond the walls of the child care program to connect to the neighborhood and beyond.
NAECY's 5 Guidelines
1. Create a community.
2. Teach to enhance development and learning.
3. Plan curriculum to achieve identified goals.
4. Assess children's development.
5. Establish relationships with families.
What is formed when axons and dendrites form a connection?
What are some basic things to keep in mind when you are selecting toys and materials for your classroom?
Are they safe, appealing, age appropriate, and accessible?
Name the 2 indicators of quality child care and give examples of each.
Caregivers must recognize they can help children acquire the skills they need by intentionally planning environments that focus on the arrangement of space, placement of furnishings, and the organization of play materials. Another important part of the learning environment is thoughtful planning for activities, routines and transitions.
Theorists and their theories
Piaget - stages of intellectual development
Vygotsky - children learn through the support of peers and teachers within social interaction, techniques include scaffolding and reciprocal teaching, and the Zone of Proximal Development.
Erikson - social emotional stages of conflict people resolve throughout life.
Maslow - hierarchy of human needs.
What is the term associated with "assistance a teacher or a more skilled peer provides" called?
Name things found in a quality early learning environment.
Learning centers, room arrangement, selecting DAP equipment and play materials, and daily routines and schedules.
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