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Terms in this set (58)
Adenine (A) always pairs with
Cytosine (C) always pairs with
four people who made significant discoveries
To visualize DNA think of a ___________ then twist it.
An organism's physical traits are the result of the actions of a variety of
__________ proteins make up the body of an organism.
___ specifies the synthesis of proteins, but does not build up the proteins.
___ builds up proteins.
Two stages of protein synthesis are
transcription and translation
Genetic information in DNA is ___________ into RNA and then __________ into polypeptides which then fold in proteins.
In DNA, the four nucleotides are A, T, C, and G. In RNA, the four nucleotides are A, _, C, G. Thymine has been replaced with
The flow of information from gene to protein is based on a _______ code.
______ are a series of three-base words.
The _______ code is the set of rules that convert a nucleotide sequence to RNA to an amino acid sequence.
three stop codons
___ is the is the triplet code for the START codon.
A ________ is a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA, located at the start of a gene, that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins.
During the second phase of transcription, the RNA grows, this is called
In the third phase, a sequence of bases on the DNA template signals the end of the gene, this sequence of bases is called the
_______ are internal noncoding regions of the genes.
_______ are coding regions that are expressed in the genes.
The first RNA used in the sequence is _________ RNA or mRNA.
________ RNA (tRNA) converts the three-letter codon of nucleic acids to the amino acid.
The _________ is on a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA.
Ribosomes have its RNA called _________ RNA (rRNA).
The flow of information in eukaryotic cells goes from the DNA to RNA - this occurs in the cell nucleus and is called
RNA is processed in the
mRNA and tRNA meet at the ribosome and initiate the ___________ process.
The second step of translation is __________ - the polypeptide gets longer as amino acids are added to it.
_____________________ are used to control the translation process.
codons and anticodons
The final step in translation is ___________ - a stop codon stops the process and the ribosome releases the completed polypeptide.
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of a cell's DNA is called a
1) Base substitution
2) Nucleotide deletion
3) Nucleotide insertion
three types of mutations
_________________ may or may not affect the protein's function.
___________________ occurs when a nucleotide is deleted and all the codons from that point on are misread. The resulting polypeptide is likely to be completely nonfunctional.
____________________ occurs when an inserted nucleotide disrupts all codons that follow, most likely producing a nonfunctional polypeptide.
Mutations can occur from random errors but they can also be caused by physical and chemical agents called
1) Not smoking
2) Wearing protective clothing and sunscreen to minimize direct exposure to the sun's UV rays
some things that can help avoid mutagens
seven characteristics all living organisms have
Viruses have some the characteristics of life, but they cannot _________ without the help from other organisms.
Viruses are considered "genes in a ___."
Viruses that attack bacteria are called _____________ or phages, for short.
When viruses infect a bacteria, they enter a reproductive cycle called the _____ cycle.
An alternate route to the lytic cycle is called the _________ cycle.
The ___________ is a viral reproductive cycle resulting in the release of new viruses by lysis (breaking open) of the host cell.
In the _______________ new phages are not produced, and the host cell is not killed or lysed unless the viral genome leaves the chromosome.
1) Scarlet Fever
diseases caused by prophage genes
1) Stunted plant growth
2) Diminished crop yields
problems caused by plant viruses
3) Dirty gardening tools
ways that make it easier for a virus to infect a plant
_________________________ is an example of a plant virus.
tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
2) Common colds
8) Chicken pox
9) Herpes infection
examples of animal viruses.
Genome of the virus that causes mumps is a single molecule of
Viruses ___ remain dormant for periods of times.
3) Emotional stress
some things that can trigger virus production
A __________ is an RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule, the reverse of he usual DNA to RNA flow of genetic information
_______ are small circular RNA molecules that infect plants.
______ are an infectious form of protein that can multiply by converting related proteins into more of them.
People in Texas ______ be concerned with West Nile Virus.
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