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Terms in this set (118)
How does a double-blind experiment work?
Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group.
Gram for gram, which class of nutrient provides the most energy?
In the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called a ____.
Which statement is true of nutrient intakes?
Intakes above the UL put an individual at risk of toxicity.
What is the AMDR for fat?
What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
Which nutrient is an organic compound?
The RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally ____.
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people
Which nutrient is an example of a macronutrient?
The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to ___
plan and evaluate diets for healthy people
Which of the following would be a source of protein?
The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the
Which of the following is NOT required on food labels?
a health claim
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
In which food group are legumes found?
Which of the following food groups are emphasized by Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
whole grains, vegetables, and fruits
What is a feature of the Nutrient Facts panel on a food label?
Saturated fat must be listed
What are the principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
What best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
What is the normal pH of the gastric juice?
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
It protects stomach cells from gastric juices.
What is chyme?
a mixture of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices
The first section of the small intestine is called the:
The gastrointestinal microbiome is comprised primarily of:
One function of the gallbladder is to:
During digestion, bicarbonate is produced by_____,the purpose of bicarbonate is to___________.
pancreas; neutralize pH
Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?
What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
it creates an optimum acidity
What is the composition of lactose?
one glucose and one galactose unit
What is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?
What type of nutrient is starch?
Most carbohydrate digestion occurs in __________
_____ is the preferred source of energy for the brain and nerve cells.
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
What is the composition of sucrose?
one glucose and one fructose unit
What is the primary function of insulin?
lowering blood glucose levels
When glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of store glucose?
What product is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
The major fat-digesting enzyme in the small intestine is:
In the digestion of fats, ______ acts as emulsifier.
Which type of lipid is used to synthesize the fat-soluble vitamin D?
List the function(s) of fat in the body:
Energy sources, shock absorption, cell membrane material, skin insulation
Which of the following is an essential fatty acid?
Which of the following is a good source of omega-3 fat?
Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?
Which percentage of total calorie should be provided by protein?
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
Protein digestion starts in the _____, where _____ denatures proteins.
stomach, hydrochloric acid
Which of the following is an essential amino acid?
Which of the following food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?
When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a
In general, the protein quality in grains would be most improved by the addition of a plant protein rich in
Which of the following is not a function of protein in the body?
help with fat digestion
The process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template is ___.
Which of the following is a nonessential amino acid in human nutrition?
When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?
fat, carbohydrate, and protein
Which of the following metabolic reaction releases energy?
ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP
converts glucose to pyruvate
Glycolysis is the conversion of ____.
glucose to pyruvate
Which cellular organelle is the primary site for ATP production?
Fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production of
Which of the following(s) is(are) examples of alcohol's damage to our body?
Micronutrients deficiency, malnutrition, dehydration
During gluconeogenosis, ____________________
glucose is generated
Human body can generate ATP from the breakdown of all of the following nutrients except____.
How many net ATP are produced in glycolysis?
The weight of a body minus the fat content is known as the ____.
lean body mass
The body mass index describes the relationship between a person's___.
weight and height
What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
The psychological desire to eat that accompanies the sight, smell, or thought of food is known as:
What proportion of the U.S. adult population is considered obese?
The reasonable weight loss rate is
0.5-2 lbs per week
Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
Which of the following is a feature of gastric surgery for the treatment of clinically severe obesity?
it reduces food capacity of stomach
An individual is considered obese is his or her body mass index is equal or greater than ____.
How does folate function in maintaining blood health?
Folate is essential for synthesis of new red blood cells
The synthesis of collagen (connective tissue) requires___
Which of the following is a good source of thiamin?
pork chop, lean
Which of the following people are most likely to have vitamin B12 deficiency?
vegan and vegetarian
Which of the following can be caused by vitamin C deficiency?
Beriberi results from a deficiency of
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
Which of the following is a function of vitamin C?
Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the laco-ovo-vegetarian?
Milk and milk products provide much of the ___ in people's diets.
The main function of vitamin D is to promote
calcium and phosphorus absorption, and calcium mobilization from bone.
Which of the following is not a function of vitamin A?
facilitates energy release from macronutrients
What is vitamin K's major function in the body?
Which vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns?
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?
Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
Which of the following regarding fat-soluble vitamins are incorrect?
Vitamin K is important for the vision
Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?
certain greens such as mustard and turnip greens
What is the major extracellular electrolyte?
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
Where is interstitial water found?
When dietary intake of calcium is low, Parathyroid hormone will stimulate bone resorption in order to raise serum calcium level.
Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?
What is the upper limit for sodium intake per day in the US?
Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition?
water intoxication is rare but can result in death
Chloride is part of the stomach acid.
The DASH diet plan was recommended to prevent
What is the most important role of selenium in the body?
it acts as an antioxidant
Which of the following would be the most appropriate food source of iodine for a lacto-ovo-vegatarian?
iodized table salt
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron utilization?
most of the body's iron is recycled
Deficiency of what trace mineral can cause anemia?
Which of the following are symptoms of zinc deficiency?
growth retardation, impaired immune response, central nervous system damage
Which of the following represents the most reliable high dietary source of zinc?
oysters and steaks
Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
Foods containing vitamin C
Which of the following is the best food source for fluoride?
fluoridated tap water
Which of the following is a symptom of iron deficiency?
impaired energy metabolism
Which of the following foods provides heme iron, which has higher bioavailability than non-heme iron?
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