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CH 20 - ARTERIES - Anatomy UAFS
UAFS Dr. Cornell Anatomy Class Lecture
Terms in this set (65)
What is the definition of an artery?
Any blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. It can either be oxygenated or deoxygenated blood.
What is the definition of a vein?
Any blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. It can either be deoxygenated blood or oxygenated.
What are capillaries? What is their function?
Capillaries are the smallest possible blood vessels. They only allow one red blood cell at a time through.
This is where the exchange of gases and nutrients occurs.
What is the tunica interna?
It is the innermost (deepest) tissue layer of blood vessels. It is the layer that is closest to the flowing blood.
It is basically sheet of connective tissue.
What is the tunica media?
It is the middle tissue layer of blood vessels.
It is primarily smooth muscle, and it is usually the thickest tissue layer.
What is vasoconstriction of a blood vessel?
the smooth muscle layer of the tunica media in the blood vessel is contracted, and the hollow lumen is narrowed.
What is vasodilation of the blood vessel?
The smooth muscle layer of the blood vessel is relaxed and the hollow lumen is opened up.
What is the tunica externa?
It is the outermost layer of tissue of the blood vessel wall (the most superficial). (a.k.a. tunica adventitia).
It is mostly a connective tissue that anchors the blood vessel to surrounding structures.
It also contains elastic fibers to hand the pressure of the blood.
within its walls.
What is the lumen?
It is the hollow opening within the blood vessels.
What is vasa vasorum?
It is a tiny blood vessel that will supply oxygenated blood to the outer tissue layers of the blood vessel wall.
The endothelium will get its oxygen and nutrients from the blood flowing within the lumen.
Where are elastic arteries?
They are the largest arteries.
They carry blood with the highest blood pressure, and they are the arteries closest to the heart than any other blood vessel.
What is another name for elastic arteries?
What are muscular arteries?
They are the arteries just distal to the elastic arteries.
They are supplying blood to individual organs or groups of organs.
They are middle-sized arteries.
The tunica media is thicker in size when compared to the lumen. The tunica media of muscular arteries is "sandwiched" between an internal and external elastic membrane.
What is another name for the muscular artery?
What are arterioles?
They are the smallest arteries. They only have a couple of smooth muscle layers in the tunica media.
These blood vessels lead into the capillary beds. They control blood flow to the capillary bed.
What type of tissue makes up a capillary?
Simple squamous epithelium
What are the 3 types of capillaries?
Continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoid
What is the most common type of capillary?
What separates the continuous capillaries from the others?
They contain intercellular clefts, which are gaps in the tight junctions between the cells.
It allows small particles to enter and exit the capillary.
What is a pericyte?
They are tiny cells that surround the continuous capillaries that have thin processes that help strengthen the capillary wall without interfering with the flow of particles into or out of the capillary.
What separates fenestrated capillaries from the others?
In addition to the intercellular clefts, they also have pores in the actual endothelial cells.
Where are fenestrated capillaries?
Means "windows", they have pores where endothelial cells are joined by tight junctions & intercellular clefts.
Have these capillaries In organs where there needs to be a high exchange of small molecules between the blood & surrounding tissue fluid (in organ)
What separates sinusoid capillaries from the others?
They are very "leaky" with wide open spaces in the intercellular clefts, and the endothelial cells are fenestrated.
Where are sinusoid capillaries found?
They are usually fenerstated type capillaries, but they occur where whenever there is an extensive exchange of large materials, such as proteins or whole cells between the blood and surrounding tissues.
What are Sinusoid Capillaries
located in some organs that have wide, leaky capillaries.
It has a windy path with both expanded and narrow regions.
Which capillaries are the most permeable?
Which capillaries are the lease permeable?
Which capillaries increase permeability and are in areas where active absorption occurs?
Which arteries carries the blood with the highest blood pressure?
elastic artieries, they are the closest to the heart with largerst amt of elastic fibers to withstand high amounts of pressure.
Which arteries take blood to the organs?
Muscular Arteries - they are mid-sized with thicker muscular layer
What is the body's most important blood vessel?
The capillaries, because they renew and refresh the surrounding tissues with oxygen and nutrients and remove carbon dioxide and wastes.
Where are continuous capillaries found?
Skeletal muscles, skin, CNS.
Epithelial cells are held together by tight junctions that block passage of small molecules.
there are gaps or "intercellular clefts" where molecules are allowed to pass through.
Where are fenestrated capillaries found?
There are found in the small intestines (receive digestive nutrients from food),
In the kidneys (from capillaries in the glomeruli ), and the endocrine organs (pick up secreted homormones).
They are also in synovial joints to remove excess water.
Sinusoid capillaries are found?
Found in the bone marrow & spleen (many blood cells move through their walls). The largest part of these capillaries wind through these areas to ensure that max exchange occurs.
They also flow through the liver and spleen.
Which vessels are found in the kidney?
Fenerous capillaries, Renal arteries --- branched off the inferior vena cava
What is a capilllary bed?
Network of the smallest blood vessels that run through almost all tissues.
What is a metarteriole?
blood vessel that runs through the middle of the capillary bed from the terminal areriole to a thoroughfare channel of the post capillary venule.
What are the branches off the aortic arch (in order)
1) 1st branc off the aorta coronary artery (heart) at the aortic trunk
2) 2nd branch off the aorta is Brachiocephalic trunk (at aortic arch)---- turns into Right Subclavian ---- then curves downward by armpit and turns into the Auxillary Artery
2a) 1st branch off the brachiocephalic is the Right common
2b) 2nd branch off the Brachiocephalic artery is the
3) 3rd branch off the aorta is the Left Common Carotid Artery
4) 4th branch off the aorta is the Left Subclavian Artery
What is the 1st branch off the Aorta
Coronary Artery ---- which is the 1st branch off the aortic trunk
Which blood vessels carry blood to the heart
Veins carry blood to the heart (Atria)
Right atria- deoxigenated systemic blood
Left Atria - oxygenated pulmonary blood
Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart
The ventricals carry blood away from the heart.
Right Ventricle carries oxygen poor blood to the pulmonary system.
Left Ventricle carries oxygen right blood through the systemic part of the body.
Which blood vessels are thicker?
Conducting Arteries a.k.a elastic fibers are thicker and have a higher concentration of blood which leads to higher blood pressure.
These vessels are closest to the heart.
What is a capillary bed?
Network of the smallest blood vessels that run through almost all tissues in the body..
What are precapillary sphincters?
Valves located along the metarteriole that controls blood flow into the capillary bed (it either does or doesn't allow entrance)
List tissues that have a small amount of capillaries or NO capillaries at all (they are called avascular)
1. epithelia tissue (flattened and dead)
6. lens of the eye
List tthe pathway of blood through the heart, starting with the Right Atrium
Blood enters the Right Atrium through the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava and the Coronary Sinus, then the atrial systole --- tricupsid valves open and (deoxigenated) blood enters the right ventricle.
The right Ventricle enters Systole and the Tricuspid AV valve closes & the Pulmonary Semilunar valve opens. The deoxiginatged blood passes through the pulmonary trunk then enters arteries. The blood continues through the pulmonary circuit and enter the pulmonary capillaries. This is where gas exchange occcurs
The pulmonary arteries exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen and the the blood becomes saturated with oxygen and now the pulmonary capilarries return to the heart via the pulmonary veins (there are 4 branches) ---they enter the Left Atria. Once the blood enters the Left Atria, the Left Atria enters systole. The biccuspid (mitral AV Valves) close and the Aortic semiluncal valves open. Blood is then pushed out of the left ventricle into the aortic trunk.
Blood vessels that lead to the right atrium
Superior & Inferior Vena Cava and the Carotid Artery
Blood vessels that lead to the left atrium
The Pulmonary Veins (4 branches)
Which blood vessels are immediately after the right and left ventricles?
Right ventricle: pulmonary trunk (pulmonary artery)
Left Ventricle: Aortic trunk: Coronary Artery...then the Ascending Aorta and their branches
Where is blood during Atrial Systole distole?
Atrial Systole, the blood leaves the atrium and passes through the AV valves and enters the Ventricles.
During Atrial Distole, blood from the pulmonary circuit is beginning to fill the ventricles.
Where is blood during ventricular systole and distole?:
During Ventricle Systole, the ventricles contract and expel blood out through the semilunar valves and they either enter the pulmonary circuit via the pulmonary truck or it enters the systemic circuit via the aorta.
During Ventricle distole, the ventricles are relaxed and are starting to fill with blood.
What are the valves inside the heart?
1) Tricuspid Valve - between right atrium and right ventricle
2) Bicuspid Valve (a.k.a. between the left atrium and ventricle
3) Pulmonary Semilunar Valve (blocks blood flow from Right Ventricle) when the ventricle is relaxed and filling with blood during diostle
4) Aortic SemiLunar Valve: (blocks blood flow from the left ventricle to the Aorta) when during Left Ventricle Diostle and the ventricle is relaxed.
which blood vessels are open and/or closed during ventricular systole?
AV valves are closed to allow blood to leave the ventricles during the systolic contraction; the Semilunar valves open from the pressure exerted on them from the ventrical contraction.
Which ventricles are open during ventricle diostole?
The AV valves open during diostole--deoxigenated blood from the right atrium enters the right ventricle and oxygenated blood from the left atrium enters the left ventricle (via the Mitral Valve - bicuspid valve)
Which valves prevent blood from flowing back into the right/left atria?
What are the three layers of the pericardium?
The endocardium, the myocardium and the epicardium
Which layer is mos superficial (heart)
epicardium (a.k.a. visceral serous layer - very fatty layer
Which heart layer is the thickest?
The myocardium (the muscle layer)
What is the name of the wall that seperates the atria
Name of the wall that seperates the ventricles
what are the blood vessels of the heart?
pulmonary artery, pulmomary vein, coronary arteries, great cardiac vein, anterior interventicular arteries, right marginal arteries,
what are the steps of cardiac conduction system
SA sinoatrial node (superior upper right atrium (by superior vena cava)----impulse sent to AV atrioventricular node of lower right atria----goes down atrioventricular bundle (interventricular septum of heart)------branches at the apex------bundles go up the heart on sides ends at the perkinjie fibers----then impulse contracts the muscle fibers
pacemaker of the heart
SA node (sinoatrial node)
Which is part of the interventricular septum
Which is part of the papillary muscles
Recommended textbook explanations
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Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
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