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Biology CP Final-9

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STUDY
PLAY
evolution
generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population that account for all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time
natural selection
process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Galapagos Islands
a group of islands in the Pacific off South America; owned by Ecuador; known for unusual animal life where Darwin found the fiches that led him to the theory of evolution
species
distinct form of life
vestigial structures
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species
homologous structures
similar structure found in more than one species that share a common ancestor
convergent evolution
process in which unrelated species from similar enviroments have adaptations that seem very similar
fossils
remains or making left by an organism that lived in the past
development of embryos
stage in human development from the first division of the zygote until about nine weeks after fertilization
gene pool
all the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
gene frequency
how often a particular gene occurs in the population
gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
artificial selection
selective breeding~desired traits
survival of the fittest
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
adaptive radiation
evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments
punctuated equilibrium
model suggesting diverge in spurts of relately rapid change followed by long periods of little change
reproductive isolation
condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding
behavioral isolation
type of reproductive isolation in which two organisms have different mating rituals that prevent them from interbreeding
geogrphic isolation
separation of populations due to geographic change/migration
genetic drift
change in the gene pool of poplustion due to chance
descent with modification
when descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish botanist who proposed the modern system of biological nomenclature (1707-1778)
binomial nomenclature
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
scientific name
The name given to each species, consisting of its genus and its species label
domains
broadest category used to classify life forms
kingdoms
highest classification of organisms in the taxonomic level.
clade
a group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor
protists
eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.
protozoa
animal like protist; is a heteroph
algae
plant like protist-uses photosynthesis
slime molds
funguslike protists that play key roles in recycling organic material
prokaryote
no nucleus
eukaryote
nucleus
pseudopods
temorary extension of a cells cytoplasm and plasma membrane-made by certain protozoans in movemnt and feeding
flagella
(core of microtubules) that enable some cells to move
cilia
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface
consumer
organism that obtains food by eating producers (autotrophs) or other consumers
producer
makes own food
decompser
organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
food vacuole
small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food
contractile vacuole
saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell
pigments
colors
locomotion
self-propelled movement
fermentation
cellular process of making ATP without oxygen
budding
asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
absorptive nutrition
method by which fungi absorb small organic molecules from their surroundings
hyphae
a thread of cytoplam~makes up the body of fungus
mycelia
interwoven mat of hyphae-feeding structure
spores
haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stages in fungal reproduction
sporangia
reproductive-spore forming structures
mycorrhzae
symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots
lichen
mutualistic pairing of a fungus and an alga
reproductive structure of fungus
spores, sporangia, zygosporangium
antibiotics
medicine that kills or slows the growth of bacteria
importance of microbes
decomposition, food production, vitamin/hormone production, antibiotic, production, bioremeditation, pest control, sewage treatment, research tools, food spoilage, diseases, biowarfare
virus
must use host cells machinery to reproduce
virus parts
head w/ DNA inside, protein coat, tail
lysogenic cycle
a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cells DNA
lytic cycle
(viral) copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then burst open releasing new viruses...ew
vaccines
dose of a disabled or destryed pathogen(or part of a pathogen) elimulates long term immune defense against pathogen
viral diseases
HIV, influenza, polio, smallpox, chickenpox, common cold, mumps, measles.
uses of prokaryotes
Recovery of metals from ores
Synthesis of vitamins
Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products
Production of cheese, yogurt
Gram stain
a staining technique used to classify bacteria-gram pos~ purple -gram neg~pink shows difference in cell wall
pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
angiosperm
flowering plant
gymnosperm
plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in a ovary NAKED
moss
tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants
fern
any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward
vascular
of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids
non-vascular
containing no plant tissue through which water and food move
bryophyte
plant such as moss lacking lignin-hardened vascular tissue
diagram of leaf
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