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generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population that account for all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time
process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
a group of islands in the Pacific off South America; owned by Ecuador; known for unusual animal life where Darwin found the fiches that led him to the theory of evolution
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species
process in which unrelated species from similar enviroments have adaptations that seem very similar
development of embryos
stage in human development from the first division of the zygote until about nine weeks after fertilization
survival of the fittest
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
model suggesting diverge in spurts of relately rapid change followed by long periods of little change
condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding
type of reproductive isolation in which two organisms have different mating rituals that prevent them from interbreeding
descent with modification
when descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life
Swedish botanist who proposed the modern system of biological nomenclature (1707-1778)
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
temorary extension of a cells cytoplasm and plasma membrane-made by certain protozoans in movemnt and feeding
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface
saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell
asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stages in fungal reproduction
importance of microbes
decomposition, food production, vitamin/hormone production, antibiotic, production, bioremeditation, pest control, sewage treatment, research tools, food spoilage, diseases, biowarfare
a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cells DNA
(viral) copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then burst open releasing new viruses...ew
dose of a disabled or destryed pathogen(or part of a pathogen) elimulates long term immune defense against pathogen
uses of prokaryotes
Recovery of metals from ores
Synthesis of vitamins
Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products
Production of cheese, yogurt
a staining technique used to classify bacteria-gram pos~ purple -gram neg~pink shows difference in cell wall
any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward
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