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generation-to-generation change in the proportion of different inherited genes in a population that account for all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time

natural selection

process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring than do other individuals

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Galapagos Islands

a group of islands in the Pacific off South America; owned by Ecuador; known for unusual animal life where Darwin found the fiches that led him to the theory of evolution


distinct form of life

vestigial structures

remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species

homologous structures

similar structure found in more than one species that share a common ancestor

convergent evolution

process in which unrelated species from similar enviroments have adaptations that seem very similar


remains or making left by an organism that lived in the past

development of embryos

stage in human development from the first division of the zygote until about nine weeks after fertilization

gene pool

all the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population

gene frequency

how often a particular gene occurs in the population

gene flow

exchange of genes between populations

artificial selection

selective breeding~desired traits

survival of the fittest

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

adaptive radiation

evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments

punctuated equilibrium

model suggesting diverge in spurts of relately rapid change followed by long periods of little change

reproductive isolation

condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding

behavioral isolation

type of reproductive isolation in which two organisms have different mating rituals that prevent them from interbreeding

geogrphic isolation

separation of populations due to geographic change/migration

genetic drift

change in the gene pool of poplustion due to chance

descent with modification

when descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life

Carolus Linnaeus

Swedish botanist who proposed the modern system of biological nomenclature (1707-1778)

binomial nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name

scientific name

The name given to each species, consisting of its genus and its species label


broadest category used to classify life forms


highest classification of organisms in the taxonomic level.


a group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor


eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.


animal like protist; is a heteroph


plant like protist-uses photosynthesis

slime molds

funguslike protists that play key roles in recycling organic material


no nucleus




temorary extension of a cells cytoplasm and plasma membrane-made by certain protozoans in movemnt and feeding


(core of microtubules) that enable some cells to move


short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface


organism that obtains food by eating producers (autotrophs) or other consumers


makes own food


organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms

food vacuole

small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food

contractile vacuole

saclike organelles that expand to collect excess water and contract to squeeze the water out of the cell




self-propelled movement


cellular process of making ATP without oxygen


asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism

absorptive nutrition

method by which fungi absorb small organic molecules from their surroundings


a thread of cytoplam~makes up the body of fungus


interwoven mat of hyphae-feeding structure


haploid single cell with a thick wall that functions in the dispersal stages in fungal reproduction


reproductive-spore forming structures


symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots


mutualistic pairing of a fungus and an alga

reproductive structure of fungus

spores, sporangia, zygosporangium


medicine that kills or slows the growth of bacteria

importance of microbes

decomposition, food production, vitamin/hormone production, antibiotic, production, bioremeditation, pest control, sewage treatment, research tools, food spoilage, diseases, biowarfare


must use host cells machinery to reproduce

virus parts

head w/ DNA inside, protein coat, tail

lysogenic cycle

a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cells DNA

lytic cycle

(viral) copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then burst open releasing new viruses...ew


dose of a disabled or destryed pathogen(or part of a pathogen) elimulates long term immune defense against pathogen

viral diseases

HIV, influenza, polio, smallpox, chickenpox, common cold, mumps, measles.

uses of prokaryotes

Recovery of metals from ores
Synthesis of vitamins
Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products
Production of cheese, yogurt

Gram stain

a staining technique used to classify bacteria-gram pos~ purple -gram neg~pink shows difference in cell wall


any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)


flowering plant


plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in a ovary NAKED


tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants


any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward


of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids


containing no plant tissue through which water and food move


plant such as moss lacking lignin-hardened vascular tissue

diagram of leaf


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