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Hypersensitivity Type III and IV
Terms in this set (27)
hyper type III- ________-complex
Hyper III: increased amounts of __________
-will this be acute or chronic?
-what kind of disease is it?
Increased amounts of antigen
•Chronic or recurrent infections
Ag: Ab ratio is important:
-What happens if Ag<Ab?
-What happens if Ag>Ab?
-What happens if Ag = Ab?
•Ag<Ab - large and insoluble complexes will be phagocytized
•Ag>Ab - small complexes are not a problem
•Ab=Ag -Small, soluble complexes deposit in tissues
Type III- immune complex: Where are they deposited? what does this lead to?
-What are common sites of deposition and their names?
Immune complexes are deposited in tissues leading to
2.Neutrophil and macrophage activation
>> Tissue Damage
Common sites of deposition
•Vessels -> vasculitis
•Kidneys -> glomerulonephritis
•Joint -> polyarthritis
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (type III)
-What is the common name? what happens to most infections?
•Most infections are cleared
Feline infectious Peritonitis (type III):
-What is the virus?
-where might it form?
-what will this look like?
Virus: Antibody complexes
Purpura Hemorrhagica (type III): What does this occur with in horses? What is the Ab?
Occurs after infection with Streptococcus equi (Equine Strangles)
•Ab: bacterial complexes
--•Streptococcal M protein
Purpura Hemorrhagica (type III): Where does this occur? what will it do?
Vasculitis and vascular wall necrosis
•Mucosal hemorrhage (petechia)
•Infarction of muscle fibers
--•Signs of myopathy
Glomerulonephritis (Type III): what is the pathogenesis?
Protein Losing Glomerulonephropathy
•Hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia
--•Edema and ascites
Glomerulonephritis: describe the commonality and cause?
•Often cause is unknown
•Typically due to chronic infectious disease
--•Heartworm disease, ehrlichiosis, viral infections
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (Type III)
-What species is it in? what breeds?
In most domestic species, most commonly dogs
•Shetland sheepdog, German Shepherd, Old English Sheepdog
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (type III)
-Describe the disease. What Ab is against?
Multisystem autoimmune disease
•Ab against nuclear antigens
--•Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
-What are the clinical signs? describe the variability?
Clinical signs are highly variable
•Immune complex deposition
--•Polyarthritis (most common)
--•Dermatitis (face, ears, digital extremities)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (type III):
-what might it also have antibodies against? what hypersensitivity is this? signs?
May also have antibodies against RBCs and platelets (Type II)
•Anemia and thrombocytopenia
Type IV Sensitivity: ___________ mediated immunity
Cell mediated immunity
Type IV: what interacts with what?
Interaction of T lymphocytes directly with Antigen
Type IV: what do CD4 T lymphs do? what about CD8 T lymphs?
CD4 T lymphocytes
•Attract other cell types and promote an inflammatory response
CD8 T Lymphocytes (Cytotoxic T Cell)
•Directly kill targeted cells
What causes cell mediated immunity to turn to Hypersensitivity type IV?
Inciting agent eliminated
= Effective cell mediated immunity
•Inciting agent NOT eliminated
•Tissue damage occurs
= Hypersensitivity reaction
Type IV hypersensitivity: What are the two types?
Cell Mediated Hypersensitivity
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)
•Depend on sensitized T cells
•Can take 24-48 hours to develop
Type IV hypersensitivity: What type of dermatitis is it associated with? What kind of inflammatory responses?
•Flea Allergy Dermatitis
•Granulomatous Inflammatory Responses
--•Sterile nodular panniculitis
--•Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Allergic contact Dermatitis (type IV): what are the antigens? WHat must happen for this to be a type IV?
Poison ivy, chemicals, carpet, plastic
•Lipid-soluble, small molecules that easily penetrate the skin
•Must be complexed to a larger protein
Allergic contact dermatitis (type IV)
-What special cells are in the dermis? There is also marked ______________ hyperplasia and ____________ formation
Lymphocytes and macrophages are in the dermis. There is also marked epidermal hyperplasia and vesicle (blister) formation
What is it difficult to differentiate allergic contact dermatitis from?
Can be difficult to differentiate from IRRITANT contact dermatitis
•Irritant contact dermatitis
--•not immune mediated
Flea Allergy Dermatitis:
-what is the initial response? over time what happens?
Initial response is Type I
•IgE and Mast cells
Overtime results in Type IV
Graniulomatous disease manifest as type IV: What does T cell stimulate? What do the stimulated thingmabobs do? What gets stimulated to make collagen and the end result?
T cell stimulates monocyte/macrophages
•Macrophages fuse to form multinucleated giant cells
Fibroblasts are stimulated to produce collagen
Granulomatous Disease manifest as Type IV: how do Mycobacterial infections become type IV? what are 2 examples?
•Pathogen is ineffectively eliminated
•Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis
Granulomatous Disease manifest as Type IV: Sterile nodular panniculitis cause
What form of FIP???
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