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Where is the heart located?
In the cardiac mediastinum
Where is the heart located according to the midline?
2/3 is located on the left. 1/3 is located on the right.
At what level is the apex and the base located?
The apex faces downward (towards the diaphragm) and is located at the level of the 5th intercostal space 9cm from the midsternal line. The base faces upwards, and is located at the 3rd costal cartilage.
What are the surfaces of the heart?
It has 4 surface
1. Sternocostal surface
2. Diaphragmatic surface
3. posterior surface
4. pulmonary surface
How many layers of pericardium does the heart have?
It has a fibrous layer and a serous layer. The serous layer can be divided into the parietal pericardium, and the visceral pericardium (epicardium).
How does the pericardium cover the heart?
The fibrous layer covers the outside surface of the heart, and when it reaches the major blood vessels, it folds itself back in to create the parietal pericardium (serous layer). The epicardium (visceral layer) is found on the heart itself. It is attached to the heart. So when we dissect the heart, we will first find the fibrous layer. When we cut open the fibrous layer, the parietal serous layer will be lined with the inside of the fibrous layer. And the layer that is left on the heart is the epicardium (visceral layer)
What is the arterial supply of the pericarcdium?
*superior phrenic artery
What is the veinous drainage of the pericardium?
*Pericardiophrenic vein to the brachiocephalic vein
*Azygos venous system
What nerve innervates the pericardium?
phrenic nerve and the sympathetic trunk
Where is the transverse pericardiac sinus located? And where is the oblique pericardiac sinus located?
The transverse pericardiac sinus is found between the main arteries (aorta and pulmonary trunk) and the main veins (pulmonary veins and superior vena cava) The oblique pericardiac sinus is located behind the heart, after lifting the apex.
What is the pericardial cavity/space? What are the content(s)?
It is a space between the parietal and visceral layer of the pericardium. It contains a serous fluid, lubricating the surface and allows movement for the heart
What are the 3 layers of the heart?
Epicardium (visceral layer of the pericardium)
Myocardium (muscular layer)
Endocardium (innermost endothelial layer)
How many layers of the Myocardium does the ventricle have?
It has 3 layers of myocardium.
The outer layer is oblique
the middle layer is circular
the inner layer is longitudinal
What are the angles of the heart?
60° to the left in a sagittal axis. 30° up in a transverse axis. 15° to the left around the heart axis.
What are the 2 main parts of the right atrium?
Right auricle, composed of pectinate muscles. This area is known as the atrium proper (anterior wall).
Sinus venarum cavarum, a smooth wall on the posterior side.
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