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79 terms

A&P Chapter 13 Heart

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heart
_______________is located in the chest, between the lugs in an area of the chest known as the mediastinum
2/3 on left side
the majority of the heart lies ______________________ of the line and 1/3 on the right side
apex (blunt point of the heart)
the heart is triangular in shape and the _______________________ lies slightly to the left on the diaphragm
aorta
the branches of the coronary arties come from the _______________
great cardiac vein
the _______________________bring blood back to the heart
pericardium
the thick outer fibrous covering of the heart is known as the _______________________
epicardium
the thin covering layer under the pericardium is known as the ______________________
and fits loosely around the heart allowing enough room for the heart to beat
right coronary artery
the ascending aorta receives blood first from the ________________________________
chordae tendoneae
______________________ are fibrous band like structures that attach to the edges of the AV valves and to the papillary muscles (they do not open valves)
papillary muscles
_______________________ are the muscular structures that are found only inside the ventricles and they hold the chordae tendoneae in place (holds AV valves in place)
atrial ventricular valves (AV)
the __________________________ separate the atrium and the ventricles
tricuspid valve
the right AV valve is know as the ____________________
mitral (bicuspid) valve
the left AV valve is know as the ______________________
semilunar valves (SV)
the valves that exits the ventricles are known as the ________________________
pulmonary valve
the right semilunar valve is known as the ________________________________
aortic valve
the left semilunar valve is known as the _______________
dub
the second sound the heart is __________ makes is caused by the closing of both semilunar valves when the ventricles undergo diastole (relaxation)
lub
the first sound _______________ is caused by the vibration of the closure of the AV valves when the ventricles contract
cardiomegaly
____________________ is an enlarged heart, x-rays are taken to see if the heart is enlarged
coronary circulation
when the coronary arteries that branch off the ascending atria delivers oxygen and nutrient-rich arterial blood to the cardiac muscle tissue, and then return of oxygen-poor blood from the active tissue to the venous system is known as the ___________________
right and left coronary arteries
the ______________________________ branch off of the aorta and supply the heart with blood and oxygen, they supply the myocardium for both the sides of the heart
heart murmur
a ________________ is an abnormal heart sounds that are caused by disorders of the valves the most common reason is incompetent valves which may cause a swishing sound as a 'dub' it often ends in a swishing sound
embolism
a(an) _______________ can occur as a thrombosis in the coronary artery which is a blockage occludes or plugs some of the coronary artery where there is a reduction or a stopping of blood flow to that region of the heart, therefore oxygen and nutrients cannot get to the heart muscles (heart will die as a result)
myocardial infarction
a _________________________ happens when there is no flow of blood to the heart, referred to as a 'heart attack' and is a common cause of death during middle and late adulthood, recovery is possible depending on the amount of damage done to the heart muscle
cardiac cycle
the __________________ includes a contraction (systole) and a relaxation (diastole) of the atrium as well as a contraction (systole) and a relaxation (diastole) of the ventricles
stroke volume
the ___________________ is the amount of blood that is ejected from the ventricles during each beat of the heart, this amount can be decreased from normal due to valvular disorder, myocardial infarction and blockage of the coronary arteries
cardiac output
the ___________________ is the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute, which averages out to be around 5L in a normal resting adult
per minute
all of the blood in our body is pumped out of our heart ___________________________
one cardiac cycle
one contraction (systole) and a relaxation (diastole) is ____________________________
intercalated disks
_________________________ are actually electrical connectors that join the muscle fibers together into a single unit and allows for conduction impulses through the entire wall of the heart chamber without stopping and is only found in the myocardium, it does not need the nervous system to beat because it beats on its own (part of the conduction system of the heart)
conduction system of the heart
the ________________________________ has muscle fibers that can contract on their own rhythmically and are coordinated by electrical signals that are built into the myocardium, the myocardial fibers in each region of the heart are electrically linked together
sinoatrial node (SA node)
_________________________ is also known as the pacemaker of the heart, it is found in the upper right atrium
atrioventricular node (AV node)
_________________________ is found in the lower right atrium
AV bundle or Bundle of His
the __________________________ is found in the interventricular septum
right and left branches
the __________________________ are found in the interventricular septum wall of the ventricles
ECG or EKG
__________________ is the graphic record of the hearts electrical activity
pulse
electrical and mechanical activity from an EKG can be checked by the ______________ to make sure they are correct
electrocardiograph
specialized structures of the heart conduction system generate tiny electrical currents through tissue and can be picked up and transformed into visible tracings by a(an) ______________________________
P-wave
the _______________ represents the atrial contraction (systole) and depolarization of the atrial and is mechanical
QRS-wave
__________________ is a group of waves that represent the ventricular contraction, represents depolarization of (systole) and ventricular, and is mechanical
T-wave
___________________ represents the ventricular relaxation (diastole) and is the polarization of the ventricular, and is mechanical
volume
the EKG's vertical line (up & down) measures the ____________________
time
on the EKG, the horizontal line (left to right) measures the _____________________
.04
one tiny cube on the ECG paper counts for __________ seconds in time
.02
one large box on the ECG paper counts for ______________ seconds in time
positive
when the wave lines go above the baseline on the ECG paper it is considered to be a _________________ wave
negative
when the wave lines go below the baseline on the ECG paper it is considered to be a _______________ wave
6.0
30 tiny boxes would equal ___________ seconds
endocardium
____________________ makes up the heart
endocarditis
_____________________ is an inflammation of the enternal lining of the heart usually due to a bacterial infection, this condition can lead to or be caused from valvular infections
pericarditis
__________________ is the inflammation of the outermost layer (sac) of the pericardium of the heart, can be caused from trauma, viral or bacterial infection, tumors, it can cause the visceral and parietal pericardium to rub together causing severe chest pain
pericardial fluid
____________________ is pus or blood that accumulates between the pericardium and epicardial layer and begins to impair the pumping action of the heart
pericardial effusion
________________________ is caused from pericardial fluid pus or blood that accumulates between the pericardium and epicardial layer and begins to impair the pumping action of the heart
cardiac tamponade
_____________________ is a result from pericardial effusion but is a large build up of pericardial fluids in the sac of the heart
incompetent valves
______________________ (AV valve that is damaged) is a leaky valve that allows some blood to flow back into the chamber from which it came, it is like a heart murmur
stenosed valves
_____________________ are values that are narrower than normal, slowing blood flow from a heart chamber, rheumatic fever is a cause
rheumatic heart disease (also known as rheumatic fever)
_____________________________ is a cardiac damage resulting from a delayed inflammatory response to streptococcal, infection occurs most often in children, if untreated then valves of the heart and other tissue will become inflamed, example is strep in children
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
___________________________ is a condition affecting the mitral (bicuspid) valve, can be genetic in some cases but can result from rheumatic fever or other factors
atherosclerosis
______________________ is build up of the arteries causing them to be blocked and interferes with the blood vessels ability to constrict and dilate which is known as hardening of the arteries
angina pectoris
___________________ is severe chest pain when myocardium (heart muscle) is deprived of adequate oxygen and blood-nutrients, it can be a warning sign of a heart attack, rest can help subside it
great saphenous vein
the ________________________ is used during coronary bypass surgery, it is need when the blood vessels are blocked in the heart and it will help to restore blood flow
bradycardia
___________________ is a slow heart rate over 60 beats per minute
tachycardia
___________________ refers to a rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute
sinus dysrhythmia
_________________ is a variation in heart rate, rate increase during inspiration and decreases during expiration
premature contractions
____________________ occurs before the next expected contraction in a series of cardiac cycles
atrial fibrilation
_________________ can cause a blood clot or stroke, may need a pacemaker
ventricular tachycardia
_____________________ can have a pulse but a deadly lethal rhythm around 180 beats per minute
fine ventricular fibrilation
___________________________ about to flat-line and will not have a pulse
course ventricular fibrilation
____________________ is deadly
veins
______________ carry blood to the heart
arteries
________________ carry blood away from the heart
purkinjie fibers
_________________ are modified cardiac muscle fibers in the subendothelial tissue, concerned with conducting impulses through the heart
atrium or atria
there are two smaller chambers located at the top of the heart and are known as the ______________________
ventricle
the two chambers at the bottom area of the heart are known as the __________________
septum
______________________ is the dividing wall or muscular region between the two pumps
interatrial septum
_____________________ divides the atria
interventricular septum
___________________ divides the ventricle
myocardium
____________________ is composed of a muscular tissue in the wall of each pump
endocardium
_____________________ is a very thin layer of epithelia tissue that is the internal lining of the heart