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461 terms

Mid-Term

STUDY
PLAY
All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except
Who's Who in Nutrition.
A nutrient needed by the body and that must be supplied by foods is termed a(n)
essential nutrient.
Excluding fast-food establishments, approximately what percentage of restaurants in the United States show an ethnic emphasis?
60
Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?
Body weight
If a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for protein as part of a diet containing 2500 kcalories, approximately how many grams of protein would be ingested?
219
Which of the following represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for energy?
Because a margin of safety would result in excess energy intake for a large number of people, the figures are set at the average energy intake
In the body, the chemical energy in food can be converted to any of the following except
light energy.
A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
habit.
You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently?
Prevented yourself from knowing what was in the pill bottles, and distributed the bottles randomly to the subjects
A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that
is in the early stages.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the minerals?
Unstable to light
Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?
An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food
Factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal are called
risk factors
A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?
220
Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as
phytochemicals.
The most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except
tuberculosis.
Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?
Fats
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
16
Characteristics of an acute disease include all of the following except
it progresses slowly.
Among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory-based study?
the results can't be applied to human beings
Which of the following is an overt symptom of iron deficiency?
headaches
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
requirement
Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as
peer review
Which of the following is not a set of values within the Dietary Reference Intakes?
Estimated Average Allowances
As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests
A normal half-cup vegetable serving weighs approximately how many grams?
100
Which of the following is an organic nutrient?
Fat
How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
13
What does the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of a nutrient represent?
The maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people
Which of the following is used to detect nutrient deficiencies?
Assesment Techniques
A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on
Emotional Comfort
A clinical trial must involve
human beings as subject
What is the upper range of fat intake in the AMDR?
35%
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges.
Which of the following nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram?
Plant Fats
What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?
755
Overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients?
Minerals
Which of the following describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advice to the public?
A license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states
A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as
Positive Association
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
19
To identify early-stage malnutrition, a health professional would use which of the following parameters?
Laboratory Tests
Which of the following individuals is most likely to possess the least amount of nutrition training?
Certified Nutritionist
Which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?
Some become dissolved in body fluids
Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
Setting nutrient goals for individuals
If a group of people consumed an amount of protein equal to the average requirement for their population group, what percentage would receive insufficient amounts?
50
Which of the following would most likely lead to a primary nutrient deficiency?
Inadequate nutrient intake
What is the term that defines foods that contain nonnutrient substances whose known action in the body is to promote well-being to a greater extent than that contributed by the food's nutrients?
Functional Foods
When consumed in excess, all of the following can be converted to body fat and stored except
Vitamin C
A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be
The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people
Which of the following is classified as a micronutrient?
Iron
Which of the following is an example of a macronutrient?
Protein
Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)
Anecdote
What behavior is the major cause of death in the United States?
Tobacco Use
What is the weight (lbs) of the "reference" adult female?
126
What is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat?
Taste
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the vitamins?
Inorganic
What type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient?
Secondary
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a Registered Dietitian except
completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent.
Which of the following most accurately describes the term organic?
Substances with carbon
Which of the following is characteristic of an essential nutrient?
Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?
Water
Which of the following is not a feature of the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?
The percentage of people covered is known for both values
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods?
They contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate
Which of the following figures falls within the carbohydrate range of the AMDR?
50%
Inspection of hair, eyes, skin, and posture is part of the nutrition assessment component known as
Physical
Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a
Positive Correlation
All of the following describe features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except
The recommendations also apply to sick people
Which of the following best describes a college-educated nutrition and food specialist who is qualified to make evaluations of the nutritional health of people?
Registered Dietician
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
What is the AMDR for fat?
20-35%
How are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set?
High, to cover virtually all healthy individuals
An increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a
negative correlation
Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?
starch
Which of the following is not descriptive of MyPyramid?
A broad-based figure that conveys the message that grains should be abundant and form the foundation of a healthy diet
Which of the following is a characteristic of enriched grain products?
They have all of the added nutrients listed on the label
Approximately what minimum percentage of all grains consumed by a person should be whole grains?
50
Which of the following terms is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content
Round
Which of the following is not a feature of a food group plan?
Sorts foods with Similar water content
Approximately how many milliliters constitute a fluid ounce?
30
The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient
fortification
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
iron
Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
legumes
The most highly fortified foods on the market are
Breakfast Cereals
Which of the following is the most calcium-dense food?
Non-fat milk
What is a flexitarian?
a vegitarian who occasionally eats small amounts of meats
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
They can be made without any FDA approval
What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?
Vitamins A and C
According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of
nutrient-dense foods
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
lower rates of anemia
What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?
Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
400-500
Textured vegetable protein is usually made from
soybeans
Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?
Serving sizes on food labels are not always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide
How many subgroups comprise the vegetable food group?
5
All of the following are typical characteristics of vegetarians except
their zinc absorption is efficient due to their high soy intake
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label?
Vitamin A and C
All of the following are features of serving size information on food labels except
small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving.
What term describes a food that resembles and substitutes for another food but is nutritionally inferior to it?
Imitation Food
Whole-grain flour contains all parts of the grain with the exception of the
husk
The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?
kCalorie control
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories
Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?
"This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"
Which of the following is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?
They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?
Vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently
Applying the principle of variety in food planning ensures the benefits of
dilution of harmful substances
Which of the following is a feature of the exchange list system?
All foods are grouped according to their content of carbohydrate, protein, and fats
Which of the following foods qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?
Yogurt with 150 mg of calcium
According to food labeling laws, acceptable synonyms for nonfat milk include all of the following except
reduced-fat milk
A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
cornstarch
Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately
2000
Textured vegetable protein is usually made of
soy protein
Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?
30
Which of the following is not the same as fat-free milk?
1% milk
According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages requires a disclaimer on food labels?
lipids and obesity
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?
The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may have low bioavailability
Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?
A series of unqualified health claims on food labels
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as
moderation
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
vitamin B12 intake is higher.
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with
diabetes
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
nutrient claim
Jamie is a vegetarian who is trying to plan a healthy diet with the help of MyPyramid. Which of the following meat alternatives would be the best nutrient choices for one day?
.5 cup black beans, 2 tbsp peanut butter, 1 c spinach
All of the following are examples of legumes except
potatoes
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
2000
The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the
endosperm
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
33
General features of legumes include all of the following except
high in fat
What mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours?
iron
A cup of fresh blueberries is about the size of a
baseball
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
folate
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
daily values
The "5 to 9 a Day" food campaign promotes increased consumption of
fruits and vegetables
By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is
8 fluid ounces
Which of the following is an expression of the nutrient density of a food?
0.01 mg iron per kcalorie
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except
the amount recommended for ingestion each day.
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
Nuts
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.
Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately
6
Consider the following menu from the point of view of the USDA Food Guide.


Breakfast Lunch Supper
A source of vitamin C is marginal
Which of the following ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?
tofu
An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains
excess energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
All of the following are features of the process of nutrient enrichment of flours except
fiber levels are similar to those in the whole grains
A meat described as "prime cut" means that it
is higher in fat than other cuts of meat.
In which of the following food groups are legumes found?
Meats
Which of the following is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005?
Engage in regular physical activities
Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?
There are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D
In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?
Fat
According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has been found for all of the following health claims regarding nutrition and disease except
sugar and diabetes
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
Milk products and plant foods only
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
sedentary women
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?
Whole-grain
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release
cholecystokinin.
An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of
Salt
What is/are the primary target organ(s) for the action of cholecystokinin?
Gallbladder and pancreas
What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
microvillus
Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
it carries fat away from the intestines
The hepatic portal vein empties into the
liver
What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
ileocecal valve
What is the very first thing you should do if you suspect someone is choking on food?
Ask the person to make sounds from the throat
Nancy is having difficulty digesting fatty foods. After seeing her doctor, who found no evidence of inflammation, she says that she must now see a specialist to determine why she is having trouble releasing bile from her gallbladder. What hormone is most likely functioning improperly for Nancy?
CCK
All of the following are common causes of heartburn except
bending over after a meal
Inflammation of the large intestine is known as
colitis
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
approximately neutral
Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?
The pancreas can increase the activity of fat-degrading enzymes in response to more fat in the diet
When consumed on a regular basis, which of the following foods promotes healthful changes of the microflora of the GI tract?
yogurt
What is a zymogen?
An inactive enzyme precursor
All of the following are features of stomach acid except
its potentially destructive action on stomach cells is prevented by the presence of bile.
Which of the following is not the same as fat-free milk?
1%
According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages requires a disclaimer on food labels?
Sodium and high blood pressure
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?
The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may have low bioavailability
Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?
A series of unqualified health claims on food labels
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as
Moderation
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
vitamin b12 intake is higher
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with
diabetes
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
nutrient claim
Jamie is a vegetarian who is trying to plan a healthy diet with the help of MyPyramid. Which of the following meat alternatives would be the best nutrient choices for one day?
.5 cup black beans, 2 tbsp peanut butter, 1 c spinach
All of the following are examples of legumes except
potatoes
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
2000
The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the
endosperm
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
33
General features of legumes include all of the following except
they are high in fat
What mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours?
iron
A cup of fresh blueberries is about the size of a
baseball
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
folate
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Daily Values
Which of the following nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
Calcium
Which of the following nutrients requires the greatest time for digestion?
Fats
Colonic irrigation is a popular practice for treatment of
Constipation
What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?
epiglottis
Choking occurs when a piece of food becomes firmly lodged in the
trachea
Into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?
duodenum
To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
The living bacteria found in yogurt are known as
probiotics
Which of the following results from reverse peristalsis?
Vomiting
Which of the following is not a sphincter muscle?
duodenum
The organism H. pylori has been identified as one of the major causes of
Gastric Ulcers
Which of the following is a prominent feature of the expulsion of gas from the anus?
It is Normal
Which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
Vitamins
Which of the following would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
Fiber
Which of the following is a feature of the muscular actions of digestion?
Segmentation in the intestines allows periodic squeezing along its length resulting in momentary reversal of the movement of intestinal contents
About how many more times sensitive is the sense of smell compared with the sense of taste?
1000's
What is one function of the gallbladder?
Stores bile
Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
Very Acidic
What is the primary function of the rectum?
Stores waste materials prior to evacuation
The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to
raise the ph of chyme
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release
cholecystokinin.
An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of
salts
What is/are the primary target organ(s) for the action of cholecystokinin?
Gallbladder and pancreas
What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
microvillus
Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
It carries fats away from the intestines
The hepatic portal vein empties into the
liver
What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
ileocecal valve
What is the very first thing you should do if you suspect someone is choking on food?
Ask the person to make sounds from the throat
Nancy is having difficulty digesting fatty foods. After seeing her doctor, who found no evidence of inflammation, she says that she must now see a specialist to determine why she is having trouble releasing bile from her gallbladder. What hormone is most likely functioning improperly for Nancy?
CCK
All of the following are common causes of heartburn except
bending over after a meal
Inflammation of the large intestine is known as
colitis
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
approximately neutral
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
epiglottis
What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
chyme
Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?
The pancreas can increase the activity of fat-degrading enzymes in response to more fat in the diet
When consumed on a regular basis, which of the following foods promotes healthful changes of the microflora of the GI tract?
yogurt
What is a zymogen?
an inactive enzyme precursor
What is a bolus?
portion of food swallowed at one time
Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?
stomach
All of the following are features of stomach acid except
its potentially destructive action on stomach cells is prevented by the presence of bile.
Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?
Gastrin
The most common cause for the development of ulcers is
infections from H. pylori
A solution with a pH of 7 is how many times more alkaline than one with a pH of 6?
10
Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?
Stomach
What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?
ileocecal valve
During the process of digestion, at what point does the stomach begin to release chyme?
when the chyme is completely liquified
All of the following are important enterogastrone hormones except
pepsin
The lower esophageal sphincter is also known as the
cardiac sphincter
Which of the following is a significant property of dietary fiber?
Promotes water retention of stools
In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?
Ingestion of prunes
A bolus is conducted past the diaphragm through the
esophagus
The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate is believed to promote a unique taste sensation known as
umami
The chief functions of cholecystokinin include all of the following except
triggering release of gastrin
A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for which of the following?
dehydration
What is the lumen of the GI tract?
the inner space
What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?
Hydrolyzed in the GI tract
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small intestine
What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
Helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system
Which of the following regulates the pH of the stomach?
gastrin
Which of the following is a common cause of constipation?
lack of physical activity
Holding the breath for as long as possible is considered an effective treatment for
hiccups
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
prevents the contents of the small intestine from backing up into the stomach
People use antacids primarily for
active ulcers in the stomach
What is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins?
hepatic portal vein
Jim went for his annual medical check-up and was diagnosed with heartburn. Which of the following actions is most likely causing Jim's condition
Defective lower esophageal sphincter activity
After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
mucus
All of the following are major causes of ulcer formation except
excessive use of antacids
Which of the following is not a typical component of stools?
starches
What is the primary cause for belching?
swallowing air
What is the substance that protects the stomach walls from digestion?
mucus
Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except
transmigration
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
control of the passage through the GI tract
All of the following are characteristics of the process of digestion except
saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars, fats, and proteins.
People who have frequent regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as
gastroesophageal reflux.
Which of the following is known to be produced by small intestinal bacteria?
vitamins
What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
creates an optimum acidity
What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?
pyloric sphincter
Which of the following products of digestion is not normally released directly into the bloodstream?
Fats
The colonic fermentation of certain fibers produces all of the following except
Secretin
What sweetener should be avoided by people with PKU?
asperatame
Which of the following are characteristic of the conditions diabetes and hypoglycemia?
Both benefit from the inclusion of fiber-rich foods and consumption of smaller, more frequent meals
Typical dietary sources of carbohydrate include all of the following except
glycogen
Which of the following is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?
dental caries
Which of the following statements describes the glycemic index of foods?
A way of ranking foods according to their potential to increase blood glucose
Approximately how many pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average U.S. resident each year?
105
What type of nutrient is starch?
complex carbohydrate
All of the following are features of artificial sweeteners except
they provide about one-half the energy of carbohydrates plus small amounts of vitamins and minerals.
All of the following are symptoms of lactose intolerance except
constipation
At rest, the typical body stores of glycogen can provide energy for a maximum of about
1 day
What term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal?
glycemic response
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown?
50-100 g
In a person with type 2 diabetes, which of the following foods would ordinarily promote the least favorable glycemic effect?
baked potato
Which of the following describes a relationship between carbohydrate intake and dental health?
Eating a sugary dessert at the beginning of a meal, rather than the end, is less likely to promote dental caries
Your nephew Jimmy, who is 10 years old, has been giving himself a shot in the thigh every day for the past year. He confides in you that he craves candy but was told by his parents that he can only eat sugar-free snacks. From which of the following conditions does Jimmy most likely suffer?
type 1 diabetes
When consumed in excess, which of the following is most likely to lead to diarrhea?
sorbitol
What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
liver
Which of the following is a common source of resistant starch?
unripe bananas
Which of the following is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
Provide more energy per gram than processed foods
Which of the following is a feature of lactose?
It is used as filler in one out of five prescription drugs
Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of
glucose from a noncarbohydrate substance
Which of the following is a feature of aspartame?
Two of its breakdown products include methanol and formaldehyde
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
They are classified according to solubility in water
Which of the following statements is not characteristic of fibers?
An example of a nonpolysaccharide fiber is hemicellulose
Which of the following is not a classification for the food additives mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol?
artificial sweetners
Which of the following contains the least amount of fiber?
white rice
What is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages?
high-fructose corn syrup
A person with a fasting blood glucose level of 120 mg/dL would be classified as
prediabetic
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
lactose
What type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria?
fermentable
All of the following components are part of the chemical structure of aspartame except
methanol group
Which of the following plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestine?
bacteria
What is the sweetest-tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
fructose
All of the following are characteristic of a high-fiber diet except
may reduce the risk of lung cancer but increase the risk of breast cancer
Which of the following describes the compound phytic acid?
Nonnutrient component of plant seeds
Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?
glucose
Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except
it is classified as a fiber
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption
liver
Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues?
muscle and liver
What percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
30
According to the American Dietetic Association, what is the recommended daily intake of dietary fiber?
20-35g
Which of the following fibers is water insoluble?
cellulose
You have just arrived at a lunch buffet and are faced with many choices. Although each of the following portions provides about 200 kcalories, which is most nutrient dense?
3 slices of whole wheat bread
What component accounts for the usually sweet taste of fruits?
simple sugars
About how many grams of carbohydrate are contained in one ounce of foods in the grain group?
15
What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin?
fibers
After you and your friend Dolores share pretzels and animal crackers, she announces that she wants to start digesting her food by watching television. You inform Dolores that
carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth through the action of amylase, so she has already begun digesting the snacks.
The types of atoms found in a glucose molecule include all of the following except
nitrogen
Why are hard cheeses lower in lactose than soft cheeses?
more lactose is removed during manufacture
In general, a diet that is modified by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in
fiber
What is a normal range (mg/dL) for blood glucose?
70-100
A person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's
protein
Which of the following is not a rich source of dietary starch?
fruits
Which of the following is a feature of dairy products and carbohydrate?
Most cheeses provide little, if any, carbohydrate
Among the following foods, which contains the lowest amount of lactose per serving?
american cheese
Which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
They have a low glycemic index
A "functional fiber" is one that
is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect
Honey contains
more kcalories per teaspoon than sucrose
Which of the following is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risk of deaths from heart disease?
High fiber intake
What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol?
triglyceride
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
monounsaturated
The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed
linolenic acid
Which of the following is a property of dietary lipids?
omega-3 fatty acids are always unsaturated
Which of the following would be least effective at preventing oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in processed foods?
addition of phosphorus
What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?
high-density lipoproteins
A major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
heat and oxygen
Which of the following sources of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?
canola oil
Which of the following is a likely explanation for the imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 lipids in the U.S. diet?
high intakes of meat and low intakes of fish
Which of the following substances cannot be absorbed directly into the blood?
long-chain fatty acids
Which of the following foods provide essential fatty acids?
fish , beef, and plants
Which of the following is a good source of eicosapentaenoic acid?
tuna
What is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
Hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?
roasted turkey
High intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to increase the risk for all of the following except
inflammation of the pancreas
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
high-density lipoproteins
Of the total fat content of the most commonly eaten nuts in the United States, what is the approximate percentage of monounsaturated fat?
60
All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
palm oil
Which of the following is a feature of polyunsaturated fats?
low melting point
Which of the following is a feature of the lipid content of foods?
omega-3 fats are found in fish
The results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a
lipid profile
Which of the following describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?
High saturated fat intake may raise the risk for prostate cancer
All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol except
glucose
Which of the following is a drawback of olestra consumption?
It inhibits absorption of vitamin E
What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?
stearic acid
What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
199
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
corn oil
All of the following are features of dairy products consumption except
fat-free milk is lower in kcalories but also lower in protein and calcium than whole milk
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
fat only
Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this effect?
Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement
A food that represents a visible fat would be
butter
Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following except
products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.
Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
low-density lipoproteins
Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?
300 mg
Which of the following is a characteristic of the lipid content of livestock?
Free-range" animals contain more omega-3 fats in the meat than grain-fed animals
Which of the following is not a feature of the artificial fat replacer olestra?
it leads to constipation in some animals
Which of the following is a feature of nut consumption and improved cardiovascular health?
The benefit may be related, in part, to the high content of monounsaturated fats and low content of saturated fats
What is the major source of "good" cholesterol?
endogenous synthesis
What nutrient is used to form ketones?
fat
The results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a
lipid profile
Which of the following describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?
High saturated fat intake may raise the risk for prostate cancer
All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol except
glucose
Which of the following is a drawback of olestra consumption?
it inhibits absorbtion of vitamin e
What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?
stearic acid
What is the highest total blood cholesterol concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
199
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
corn oil
All of the following are features of dairy products consumption except
fat-free milk is lower in kcalories but also lower in protein and calcium than whole milk.
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
fat only
Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this effect?
Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement
A food that represents a visible fat would be
butter
Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following except
products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.
Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
low-density lipoprotein
Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum daily intake of cholesterol on a 2500-kcalorie diet?
300 mg
Studies show that regular consumption of fatty fish leads to
lower blood pressure
Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
double bonds
Which of the following is a feature of butter and margarine?
Butter contains more saturated fat and cholesterol than margarine does
Which of the following is a characteristic of fish consumption?
Fatty fish contain the highest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
All of the following statements are characteristics of lipid intake of U.S. adults except
trans-fatty acid intake accounts for less than 1% of total fat intake.
A meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10 g of saturated fats, 14 g of monounsaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. What is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?
33
What are the building blocks in the body's synthesis and elongation of fatty acids?
2-carbon fragments
How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?
1
Which of the following represents a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids?
dairy
The average daily cholesterol intake (mg) of U.S. women is
190
What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?
45Kcal
What is the highest blood triglyceride concentration (mg/dL) that falls within the desirable range?
149
A common feature of the plant sterols is they
inhibit absorbtion of dietary cholestrol
`What is the approximate daily trans-fatty acid intake in the United States?
5g
What lipoprotein is largest in size?
chylomicron
Which of the following lipids is an essential nutrient?
linoleic acid
Which of the following is a feature of fat metabolism?
Triglycerides in the blood must first be broken down to monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol prior to uptake by the adipose cells
Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?
Docosahexaenoic acid
Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
polyunsaturated fatty acid
Which of the following is an example of enterohepatic circulation?
recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver
Which of the following describes a process in protein synthesis?
The code to make a protein is carried by a strand of messenger RNA
What is a "limiting" amino acid in a protein?
An essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
Which of the following is involved in the clotting of blood?
fibrin
Which of the following proteins inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses?
antibodies
What is the chief function of pepsin?
cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides
Which of the following conditions is associated with edema?
Diminished concentration of blood proteins and hormones, which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels
Which of the following is a feature of an essential amino acid?
it must be supplied by the diet
Which of the following compounds does not contain nitrogen?
cholestrol
What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?
Inability of the liver to synthesize lipoproteins for fat export
Protein-hydrolyzing enzymes are commonly known as
proteases
Which of the following is a characteristic of hormones?
act as messenger molecules
The body's usual response to detection of antigens is to synthesize
antibodies
All of the following describe associations between protein nutrition and the body's water balance except
excessive protein losses by the kidney may lead to dehydration
Which of the following are precursors of urea synthesis?
all amino acids
All of the following are fates of amino acids in the intestinal tract except
some may be used for synthesis of gastric prostease
What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats?
nitrogen
What is the name of the inactive form of the protein-splitting enzyme in the stomach?
pepsinogen
What is the percent digestibility of most plant proteins
70-90
All of the following are characteristics of protein-energy malnutrition except
it almost always exhibits overt signs
You are reading a case study from a researcher at World University. The researcher has traveled to the largest city in India and is reporting on an illness present in a 15-month-old boy. The researcher described the child as extremely thin and bony, with wrinkled skin and enlarged fatty liver, and who, for the past year, has subsisted almost entirely on diluted cereal drink. Your first thought is that all of these observations are characteristic of marasmus except for the
enlarged fatty liver
Approximately what percentage of children worldwide have protein-energy malnutrition?
25
At the end of your class presentation on "Protein-Energy Malnutrition," a student asks you to clarify how the rapid onset of protein-energy malnutrition occurs in kwashiorkor. How should you respond?
It is typically seen in patients who are 1-3 years old due to the sudden change in diet arising from their being weaned from breast milk after the birth of a sibling
Which of the following is not a characteristic of marasmus?
affects brain development only minimally
How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
20
Which of the following do(es) not function as a transport protein?
collagen
The study of how food interacts with genes is known as
nutrigenomics
What function does a buffer perform?
helps maintain a constant ph
Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?
the side group
Which of the following is a consequence of excess protein intake?
Increased production and excretion of urea
What is the amino acid pool?
A mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake
What type of reaction is required to bind two molecules of glycine together and release a molecule of water?
condensation
Proteins, because they attract hydrogen ions, can act as
buffers
What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein?
essential amino acid content
In comparison to the well-defined structure of starch, which of the following is the most important factor that allows for the synthesis of thousands of different proteins?
Number of different amino acids
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
protein synthesis will be limited
What protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing?
collagen
A reference protein equals or exceeds the essential amino acid requirements of all of the following population groups except
infants
Which of the following processes is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?
ph balance
Which of the following is a feature of malnutrition?
Dysentery is common and leads to diarrhea and nutrient depletion
Which of the following is characteristic of protein nutrition in vegetarians?
Most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at each meal
Chronic protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by
short height for age
All of the following are known to raise homocysteine levels except
excess argenine intake
What is an oligopeptide?
a string of about 4-9 amino acids
Marasmus occurs most commonly in children of ages
6-18 months
Which of the following is an assumption made in the formulation of the RDA for protein?
Dietary carbohydrate and fat intakes are adequate
Any of the following can be used by the body for the synthesis of a nonessential amino acid except
an essential mineral
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
denaturation
When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a
dipeptide
Which of the following could not be a limiting amino acid in the diet?
glycine
Approximately what percentage of a person's genes are similar to that of an unrelated person?
99.9
Which of the following is related to the quality of a food protein?
essential amino acid balance
Which of the following describes an association between protein intake and kidney function?
Restricting protein intake may slow the progression of kidney disease
Upon eating a hamburger, in what organ is the hydrolysis of its proteins initiated?
stomach
Which of the following is not an essential amino acid in human nutrition?
proline
What is the percent digestibility of most animal proteins?
90-99
What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound?
collagen
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
pepsin
After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?
Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides
Kwashiorkor typically develops in children of ages
18-24 months