87 terms

CHAPTER 24 - 24.1, 24.2, 24.4, 24.5 & 24.7

STUDY
PLAY
CHAPTER 24.1
The Atmosphere pg 746
Air Pressure
1- the weight of air
2- the result of the weight of the air pushing down on the area
3- decrease as altitude increases
4- will not crush objects because
molecules push in all directions
altitude
the distance above sea level
Aneroid Barometer
Instrument that measures changes in air pressure
without using a liquid
Atmosphere
1- The layer of gases that surrounds Earth
2- water droplets & solid particles are in the atmosphere
3- forms a protective boundary to make Earth's temperature suitable for life

NOTE: The atmosphere is 99% of the gases Nitrogen & Oxygen + Water Vapor
Aurora
1- a colorful light display in the sky - the Northern lights
2- this happens when particles from the sun are attracted to the Earth's magnetic poles
Barometer
the instrument (tool) used to
measure changes in air pressure
density
1- the amount of mass in a unit
volume of a substance
2- decreases as air pressure decreases
Gases that are Essential for Life
1- Nitrogen
2- Oxygen
3- Carbon dioxide
Ionosphere
1- the lower layer of the thermosphere
2- this is where nitrogen & oxygen lose electrons
3- auroras happen because of he glowing ions in this layer of the atmosphere
Mercury Barometer
instrument that measures changes in air
pressure using liquid mercury
Mesosphere
1- 3rd layer above the stratosphere & air is very thin
2- 50km to 80km
3- temperature decreases as altitude increases
4- most meteoroids that are coming toward the earth are burned up in this part of the atmosphere
Ozone Layer
1- a layer of ozone gas
2- this is where the highest reactive gas is
3- radiation in sunlight is absorbed by ozone before it reaches Earth

Note: Chemicals are destroying the ozone layer.
pressure
force per unit area
Stratosphere
1- this is where the ozone layer is
2- 2nd layer above the troposphere
3- 12km to 50km
4- temperature increases as altitude increases
Thermosphere
1- 4th layer - the thin air here blends with outer space
2- 80km into outer space
3- the outer layer is called the exosphere (this is where satellites orbit the Earth)
4- the lower layer is called the Ionosphere
3- temperature increases rapidly - is quite high
Troposphere
1- this is where we live
2- closest to the Earth's surface
3- 9km above the poles to 16km above the tropics
4- temperature decreases as altitude increases
Weather
is what's happening in the atmosphere outside
CHAPTER 24.2
The Sun and the Seasons pg 752
EARTH - TRUE Statements
1- It takes 1 DAY (24 hours) to complete 1 ROTATION
2- It takes 1 YEAR for the Earth to complete a REVOLUTION
3- is warmer near the equator and colder toward the Poles
equator
the part of Earth that RECEIVES THE MOST
DIRECT SUNLIGHT
Equinox
the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun
latitude
it marks out three different types of regions with similar temperatures
North Star
the North end of Earth's axis points to this
orbit
the PATH Earth takes around the sun
Polar Zones
from 66.5 degrees north to the North Pole and from 66.5 degrees south to the South Pole (Cold)
Revolution
the movement of one body of space around another
Rotation
the spinning of Earth on its axis
The Seasons
are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis as it moves around the sun
Note: Summer, Fall, Winter, Spring
Solstice
The two days of the year where the noon sun is directly overhead at either 23.5 degrees
South or 23.5 degrees North
Temperate Zones
- where the Earth is cooler than the Tropics
- the United States is in this REGION
Tropic Zone
between the latitudes of 13.5 degrees
south and 23.5 degrees north
Vernal Equinox
Begins the Spring season
CHAPTER 24.4
Water in the Atmosphere pg 760
Cirrus Clouds
thin, white, wispy clouds with a feathery appearance
Cloud
1- a dense, visible mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere
2- Clouds are classified by their form and height
Cloud Forms
3 basic Types of cloud forms:
a) Stratus b) Cumulus c) Cirrus
Cumulus Clouds
Puffy white clouds that look like piles of cotton
balls with flat bottoms
Dew point
1- the temperature at which air becomes saturated
2- Clouds may form when moist air rises and the temperature cools below the Dew Point.
NOTE: Water vapor condenses as dew, frost, clouds or fog
frost
When water vapor in air changes directly from a gas to a solid
Humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air
Relative humidity
the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the maximum amount of water vapor the air
can hold at a set temperature
Stratus Clouds
flat layers of clouds that cover
much or all of the sky
CHAPTER 24.5
Weather Patterns pg 765
Air Mass
1- a huge body mass of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height
Anticyclones
Swirling center of high air pressure. Spin outwards and draws in air from troposphere. Dry and clean.

Includes clear skies, very little precipitation, and
generally calm conditions
Cold Front
Fast cold air slides underneath slow and warm air
continental
dry air masses that form over land
Cyclone
1- Swirling center of low air pressure. Warm air rises through eye, sucks in air from ground. Clouds, wind and precipitation.
3- Cyclones have clouds, precipitation
and stormy weather.
evacuate
Move away temporarily
NOTE: When there is a fire in an area, they evacuate the homes and the town
Front
1- the area where two unlike air masses meet
2- forms when a continental polar air mass collides with a maritime tropical air mass
Fronts (4 Types)
Cold Front, Warm Front, Stationary Front, Occluded Front
Hurricane
a large tropical storm (cyclone) that begins over warm, low pressure and water; with heavy rain and winds up to 119 km per hour.
Hurricane safety
Evacuate
isobar
Joining lines on the place with identical air pressure.
Isotherm
Joining lines on the place with identical temperatures.
jet streams
high and speedy streams within the prevailing westerlies
Lightning
a sudden spark, or electrical discharge, between the cloud and the ground
maritime
humid air masses that form over water
meteorologist
Scientists who study the causes of weather and predict the kind of weather that is coming
Occluded Fronts
During the front: Cold air on ground
After the front: Clouds, rain, or snow
polar
cold air masses with high air pressure
prevailing westerlies
push air masses from west to east
Snowstorm safety
Find shelter from the wind, and stay warm
Stationary Front
a front that occurs when two air masses have formed a boundary but neither is moving (p 768)
storm
a violent disturbance in the atmosphere
storm surge
a "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands
Thunder
the sound caused by
the rapid expansion of
air along an electrical strike
Thunderstorm
Small storm with heavy rain formed in cumulonimbus clouds. Accompanied by thunder, lightning, and strong winds.
thunderstorm safety
avoid conductors of electricity and high areas
Tornado
a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a cumulonimbus storm cloud to touch Earth's surface
tornado safety
Avoid doors, windows and debris. Lie down under a stable object. The best place to be is in the basement of a well built building.
tropical
warm air masses with low air pressure
Warm Front
1- Fast warm air overtakes slow cold air.
2- a front that occurs when a warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass (p 768)
Weather balloons
Balloons that carry instruments into the lower atmosphere
weather satellites
satellites that help meteorologists study weather patterns around the world
CHAPTER 24.7
Climate p. 778
climate
The long term weather conditions of a place or region.
Climate Groups - 6 Major ones
1- Tropical rainy
2- Temperature continental
3- Dry
4- Temperature marine
5- Polar
6- Highlands
desert
extremely dry region receiving less than 25 cm of rain per year
El Nino
1- the periodic warming of water in the central and easern Pacific Ocean (p 781)
2- a short term variation in climate that is caused by a change in the normal direction of winds, which causes ocean currents to shift direction.
global warming
This process refers to an increase in the worldwide temperature of the lower atmosphere.
1- Carbon dioxide and other gases to the atmosphere may cause this
Greenhouse effect
occurs when certain gases absorb radiation from Earth's surface and then radiate energy back toward the surface
ice ages
Glaciers covered a portion of Earth's surface and temperatures were colder than usual
insolation
1- the main factor that determines the amount of solar radiation received by a region
2- the amount of the sun's energy that reaches earth at a given time and place
Region's Precipitation -
4 Factors that affect it are:
1- the existence of a mountain barrier
2- distribution of air pressure systems
3- distribution of global winds
4- latitude
Region's Temperature -
4 Factors that affect it are:
1- latitude
2- distance from large bodies of water
3- ocean currents
4- altitude