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Terms in this set (22)
What was the purpose of concentrated H2SO4?
acts as a catalyst which can move the reaction forward to allow for the result of isopentyl acetate; dries the organic liquid from the apparatus; interacts with hydroxyl groups when mixed; catalyst to precipitate into crystals
Why was NaHSO3 added?
to rid of any oxidizing agents left over from the reaction
What was the role of NaOH?
serves as a catalyst for the cyclohexane, KMnO4, and water mixture; helps the mixture to precipitate the MnO4-
Why was concentrated HCl utilized?
to remove any sodium carbonate from the reaction OR because its an acidic medium to propionate the hydroxyl groups present in the nucleophile allowing by-products
We've used KMnO4 as an oxidizing agent, suggest another suitable oxidizing agent
KOH can be utilized as what?
stabilizing pi bonds and as a reactant and catalyst
What was the purpose of utilizing 1,5-hexadiene?
serves as a catalyst in the mechanism of trans-cinnemic
How can you predict the polarity of the formed ester molecule compared with that of its parent carboxylic acid and alcohol
due to its ability to accept a hydrogen bond, ester molecules are typically less polar than its parent carboxylic acid and alcohol
The present reaction uses excess acetic acid to form the product. How can Le Châtelier's principle be used to force the reaction to the product side without using excess reagents?
Because we want equilibrium toward the product side, Le Châtelier's principle allows us to use drying agents to attach themselves to excess water molecules (from the distillation) thus from the organic liquid.
stabilizes organic by-product so it can de-gas and separate
involve a hydroxyl group connected to a carbon that itself is connected to three electrons
Discuss the basics of purification by recrystallization and what is the criterion for selecting the best solvent/mixture of solvents?
Recrystallization is the process of purifying the crude crystalline product further to remove impurities and unreacted starting material. The best solvent/mixture needs to have a similar structure to the solute.
Give examples of Fischer acids and explain why esterification reactions are catalyzed by Fischer acids?
Examples would be ethyl acetate and sulfuric acid. They are catalyzed by Fischer acids because is esterification can go forward and in reverse with concentrations staying the same.
Explain how polar eluent will interact with polar and non-polar substances?
They interact based on their respective polar interactions. As such the single eluent will form a tight band with the single compound traveling down the alumina. The faster the travel, the more polar.
Explain how non-polar eluent will interact with polar and non-polar substances?
They interact based on their respective polar interactions. As such the single eluent will form a tight band with the single compound traveling down the alumina. The slower the travel, the least or none polar the solvent is.
What is the purpose of using NaCl and Na2SO4 in this lab?
Caffeine in itself is a very basic molecule and this is very insoluble. However if we were to add NaCl and/or Na2SO4 we are able to force caffeine out into an organic phase (or the dichloromethane layer) while also "removing" the acidic molecules (in this experiment the tannic acid) into an aqueous layer.
Definition of emulsions and demulsifiers aka "emulsion breakers"
Emulsion is the suspension of one liquid in another as a colloid and Demulsifiers are chemicals used to separate emulsions. In this experiment, the organic caffeine would be the emulsion and the NaCl is the demulsifier.
Why was Na2CO3 used in the extraction in the lieu of the CaCO3
To allow for the breaking of the bonds to separate the organic molecule.
Which of Raoult's or Dalton's law is applicable in case of steam distillation?
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure can be applied to steam distillation as our main focus and only focus of steam distillation is the vapor pressure of the components and compounds with the equation Ptotal=PoA+PoB (Also Raoult's Law CANNOT apply).
when molecules in the mixture has less energy than the pure compound
when the lower boiling point component than the azeotropic mixture
refers to the fractioning of data to eventually calculate the purity of both the distillate and residue. the distillate will usually be more pure of the component that is more volatile and the residue will be more pure of the less volatile component
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