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157 terms

HPRS 1206 Chapter 5 & 6 digestive system from study guide

ths is straight form Professor Bodman's study guide
STUDY
PLAY
lapar/o
abdomen
celi/o
abdomen
functions of GI tract
ingestion
digestion
absorption
elimination
GI
gastrointestinal
or/o
mouth, oral cavity
stomat/o
mouth, oral cavity
cheli/o
lip
labi/o
lip
bucc/o
cheek
dent/o
tooth
odont/o
tooth
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o
tongue
lingu/o
tongue
palat/o
palate
peri-
surrounding, around
periodontal
gum disease
(p.t. surrounding the tooth)
endo-
in, within
endodontist
specialist of within the tooth
parotid
salivary gland, the largest of the three pairs of salivary glands are the
submandibular
salivary gland, pertaining to below the mandible
sublingual
salivary gland, pertaining to under the tongue
masticate
(v.) - to chew
deglutition
act or process of swallowing
pharynx
passageway between the oral cavity and the esophagus
epiglottis
a flap of cartilage that covers the trachea while swallowing to prevent food or liquid from entering into the the trachea
bolus
food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva
peristalsis
involuntary rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
-stalsis
Contraction
dys-
bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
-phagia
eating, swallowing
(do not confuse with -phasia, which means speech)
abdomen/o
abdomen
paracentisis
a surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity.
gastr/o
stomach
fundus
uppermost domed portion of the stomach
body
central portion of the stomach
antrum
lower portion of the stomach
which part of the stomach is distal?
antrum
which part of the stomach is proximal?
fundus
sphincter
a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening
stenosis
tightening, stricture, narrowing
LES
lower esophageal sphincter
aka cardiac sphincter
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disorder (disease)
eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
(burp, belch)
pyloric
pertaining to the gatekeeper, the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.
pyloric stenosis
narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum
enter/o
intestine (usually small intestine)
where are the majority of nutrients absorbed in the GI?
small intestines (small bowel)
duodenum
first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum
jejunum
second part of the small intestine, between the duodenum and the ileum
ileum
third part of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the cecum
which part of the small intestine is proximal?
duodenum
which part of the small intenstine is distal?
ileum
where is the ilium?
it is part of the pelvic bone, do not confuse with ileum
where in the GI trract is water absorbed?
large intestine
cecum
first part of the large intestine, ileum opens into this, appendix is an offshoot of this
appendix
hangs off cecum and has no known function, can become inflammed due to clogging and must be removed before it ruptures
col/o
colon (large intestine)
ascending colon
portion of large intestine that extends UPWARD from the cecum toward the transverse colon
tranverse colon
the portion of the large intestine that passes horizontally ACROSS the abdomen from right to left from the ascending colon toward the descending colon
descending colon
the portion of the large intestine that goes DOWNWARD from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon
portion of the large intestine (resembling an s) that headds from the desending colon and terminates at the rectum
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon with a scope
rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
anus
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body
defecation
The process of excreting feces from the rectum through the anus; a bowel movement
-chezia
defecation, elimination of wastes
hematochezia
passage of fresh, bright red blood in the stool from the rectum
-cause is usually due to colitis, ulcers, or polyps in colon or rectum
melena
black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
-usually as a result of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract such as a duodenal ulcer
-rrhea
flow, discharge
diarrhea
frequent discharge of loose, watery stools
steat-
fat, sebum
steatorrhea
discharge of fat in the feces, frothy, foul smelling fecal matter
-improper digestion or malabsorption of fat due to lack of pancreatic enzymes excreation from pancreatitis or from intestinal disease
hepat/o
liver
bile
yellowish-brown or green fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the small intestine to emulsify large fat globule
composed of pigments, cholesterol, bile salts
functions of liver
1. make bile
2. conjugates bilirubin
3. detoxifies blood
4. produce blood proteins
5. manage blood glucose levels
cholecyst
gallbladder
chole/o
bile, gall
cyst/o
bladder
cyt/o
cell
jaundice
yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
bilirubin
Orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
hyper-
excessive, above, more than normal
-emia
blood condition
hyperbilirubinemia
excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood, jaundice
gallbladder functions
stores/concentrates bile from the liver; contracts and secretes bile into the common bile duct to the duodenum
duct
tube or channel for conducting a liquid
hepatic duct
duct that leads from the liver to the common bile duct; transports bile
cystic duct
duct leading from the gallbladder to the common bile duct; carries bile
common bile duct
duct that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. cystic and hepatic ducts are tributaries to this duct. Also called the choledochus.
pancreatic duct
the main duct of the pancreas, carries the exocrine secretions of the pancreas (enzymes and bicarbonate) to the small intestine (dueodenum)
-creas
fleshy
pan-
All, entire
pancreas
organ that secretes digestive enzymes it is an accesory organ for digestion, it is an exocrine and endocrine gland
exocrine gland function
secrete substances through ducts
amyl/o
starch
-ase
enzyme
amylase
A digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into disaccharides. Amylase is secreted by salivary glands and by the pancreas.
lip/o
fat
lipase
digestive enzyme that breaks down lipids, secreted by pancreas
protease
an enzyme that braks down proteins, secreted by pancreas
what are the 3 main enzymes secreted by the pancreas?
lipase
protease
amylase
endocrine gland functions
secrete substances into the blood stream
insulin
a hormone produced by the pancreas and released in response to high blood glucose levels, Insulin promotes the use and storage of glucose by the body's tissues
anorexia
lack of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing,
-sensation feels like "a lump in the throat"
-can be caused by a motor disfunction in which esophageal peristalsis is not coordinated or because of physical obstruction
hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
-common causes: cirrhosis, hear failure, venous hypertension, neoplasm, abdominal inflammatory disorders
herpetic stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters. HSV1, highly contagious
dysentery
painful, inflammed intestines (often occuring in the colon) commonly caused by bacterial infection (salmonella, shigellae) or amebae or viruses. symptoms are bloody stools and abdominal pain
diverticulum
pouch-like herniation of the colon through the muscular wall. when fecal matter gets trapped in the diverticula (pl) diverticulitis can occur causing pain and rectal bleeding
hemorroids
swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region, internal (within the rectum) or external (outside anal sphincter). caused by chronic pressure on anal veins
irritable bowel syndrome
IBS
-GI symptoms include: diarrhea, constipation, bloating, lower abdominal pain
-no pathology
inflammatory bowel disease
IBD
-chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (ileum and colon)
-Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are forms
-symptoms: diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weakness, weight loss
crohn's disease
type of IBD
ulcerative colitis
type of IBD with ulcers
colitis
inflammation of the colon
barium
substance used as a radiopaque (x-rays cannot pass through it) contrast medium for examination of digestive tract
barium swallow
X-ray study of the upper digestive tract performed by having the patient swallow a solution of barium, which highlights structures seen on the x-ray images.
upper gastrointestinal series
UGI-SBFT (soft bowel follow through)
x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth
lower gastrointestinal series
barium enema
xray images of the rectum and colon are taken after the anal adminstraiton of barium
colonoscopy
visual examination of colon with an endoscope
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of sigmoid colon with an endoscope
liver funtion tests
LFTs
test blood for presence of enymes ALT and AST and bilirubin pigment
ALT
Alanine transaminase (Formerly known as SGPT)
-enzyme measured to evaluate liver funtion
AST
aspartate transaminase (formerly known as SGOT)
-enzyme measured to evaluate liver function and heart disease
guaiac
chemical from the wood of trees that reacts with the presence of blood
stool guaiac
FOBT fecal occult blood test
aka Hemoccult
test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in stool
occult
hidden, difficult to see
-emisis
vomiting
-ptysis
spitting
-pepsia
digestion
-phagia
eating swallowing
NG
nasogastric
PEG
percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy
PO
by mouth, per mouth, orally
NPO
nothing by mouth, nothing per mouth, nothing orally
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
PUD
peptic ulcer disease
choledoch/o
common bile duct
chole/o = gall, bile
doch/o = duct
lith/o
stone
-iasis
abnormal condition
choledocholithiasis
abnormal condition of stones in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis
gallstones in the gallbladder
choledochotomy
surgical incision of the common bile duct
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
gingiv/o
gum(s)
-procto
anus, rectum
colostomy
creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions
buccal surface of a tooth
used to describe the area that faces the cheek in premolars and molars
parotitis
inflammation of the parotid salivary gland(s)
esophageal stricture
narrowing or tightening of the esophagus which can make swallowing difficult
palatoplasty
surgical repair of a palatal defect such as cleft palate
sublingual
pertaining to under the tongue
hepatomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the liver
hyperbilirubinemia
excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
JAUNDICE
rectocele
hernia (protrusion) of the rectum