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a flap of cartilage that covers the trachea while swallowing to prevent food or liquid from entering into the the trachea
involuntary rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum
hangs off cecum and has no known function, can become inflammed due to clogging and must be removed before it ruptures
portion of large intestine that extends UPWARD from the cecum toward the transverse colon
the portion of the large intestine that passes horizontally ACROSS the abdomen from right to left from the ascending colon toward the descending colon
the portion of the large intestine that goes DOWNWARD from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
portion of the large intestine (resembling an s) that headds from the desending colon and terminates at the rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body
passage of fresh, bright red blood in the stool from the rectum
-cause is usually due to colitis, ulcers, or polyps in colon or rectum
black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
-usually as a result of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract such as a duodenal ulcer
discharge of fat in the feces, frothy, foul smelling fecal matter
-improper digestion or malabsorption of fat due to lack of pancreatic enzymes excreation from pancreatitis or from intestinal disease
yellowish-brown or green fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the small intestine to emulsify large fat globule
composed of pigments, cholesterol, bile salts
functions of liver
1. make bile
2. conjugates bilirubin
3. detoxifies blood
4. produce blood proteins
5. manage blood glucose levels
yellowing of the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
Orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
stores/concentrates bile from the liver; contracts and secretes bile into the common bile duct to the duodenum
common bile duct
duct that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. cystic and hepatic ducts are tributaries to this duct. Also called the choledochus.
the main duct of the pancreas, carries the exocrine secretions of the pancreas (enzymes and bicarbonate) to the small intestine (dueodenum)
organ that secretes digestive enzymes it is an accesory organ for digestion, it is an exocrine and endocrine gland
A digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into disaccharides. Amylase is secreted by salivary glands and by the pancreas.
a hormone produced by the pancreas and released in response to high blood glucose levels, Insulin promotes the use and storage of glucose by the body's tissues
difficulty in swallowing,
-sensation feels like "a lump in the throat"
-can be caused by a motor disfunction in which esophageal peristalsis is not coordinated or because of physical obstruction
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
-common causes: cirrhosis, hear failure, venous hypertension, neoplasm, abdominal inflammatory disorders
inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpes virus. painful, fluid-filled blisters are produced by the infection and known as cold sores or fever blisters. HSV1, highly contagious
painful, inflammed intestines (often occuring in the colon) commonly caused by bacterial infection (salmonella, shigellae) or amebae or viruses. symptoms are bloody stools and abdominal pain
pouch-like herniation of the colon through the muscular wall. when fecal matter gets trapped in the diverticula (pl) diverticulitis can occur causing pain and rectal bleeding
swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region, internal (within the rectum) or external (outside anal sphincter). caused by chronic pressure on anal veins
irritable bowel syndrome
-GI symptoms include: diarrhea, constipation, bloating, lower abdominal pain
inflammatory bowel disease
-chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (ileum and colon)
-Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are forms
-symptoms: diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weakness, weight loss
substance used as a radiopaque (x-rays cannot pass through it) contrast medium for examination of digestive tract
X-ray study of the upper digestive tract performed by having the patient swallow a solution of barium, which highlights structures seen on the x-ray images.
upper gastrointestinal series
UGI-SBFT (soft bowel follow through)
x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth
lower gastrointestinal series
xray images of the rectum and colon are taken after the anal adminstraiton of barium
aspartate transaminase (formerly known as SGOT)
-enzyme measured to evaluate liver function and heart disease
FOBT fecal occult blood test
test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in stool
creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions
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