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Terms in this set (95)
*Where does L5 exit
At the L5 vertebral column
below the L5 vertebra
the L5 spinal cord level is located at the
T12 vertebral column
What is the dorsal ramus responsible for
intrinisc back muscles and the skin of the back
antero-lateral trunk and extremities
What are the four diffeent types of nerve fibes?
- somatic motor
What convey signals away from the CNS via the ventral roots
Which nerve fibers convey signals to the CNS via the dorsal roots
somatic motor nerve fibers-
Convey motor impulses from the CNS to the skeletal (voluntary muscles)
convey sensory information (pain, touch, temp and proprioception) from the body to the CNS
Knee jerk reflex
Ankle jerk reflex
Gray Matter- Dorsal horn (marginal zone)
rexed Laminae I
Gray Matter-- Dorsal horn (substantia gelatinosa)
Gray matter -- nucleus proprius
Gray Matter- Intermediate zone (Clarke's nucleus, IML nucleus)
A-a (afferent fiber); myelination
receptor: muscle spindle, golgi tendon, proprioception
receptor: muscle spindle, meissner's (superficial touch) corpuscle, merkel receptor (superifical touch)
pacinian corpouscle (deep touch, vibration)
ruffini ending (deep touch/vibration)
receptors:bare nerve ending (pain, temperature)
C; not myelinated
bare nerve ending; receptors:pain, temp (warm)
spastic, no atrophy, increased deep tendon reflex, babinski sign
flaccid, severe atrophy, absent (deep tendon reflex; babinski sign)
ventral horn cells-
*flaccid paralysis, hypotonia
Dorsal column tracts
3P's, paresthesia, pain, polyuria, high stepping gaite, positive romberg, decreased stretch
ALS structures involved
Corticospinaltract (UMN); Ventral horn cells (usually begins in cervical levels
level of lesion, flaccid paralysis at level of lesion ; no sensory
Anterior spinal artery occlusion structure
Bilateral Cst LESION, Bilateral STT lesion, Anterior white commisurre, ventral horn cells
Anterior spinal artery symptoms
bilateal spasticity, bilateral loss of pain and temperature, bilateral flaccidity at level of lesion
Spinal dura extends into interverteberal forman along dorsal and ventral roos of spinal nerves forming the
The spinal subarachnoid space contains
spinal cord, spinal nerve roots, Dorsal root ganglia
spinal epidural space is between which spaces?
vetebral canal and dura mater
What does epidural space contain
adipose tissue and the intenral (epidural venous plexus)
Intenral plexus of veins drains blood from veins on the surface of the spinal cord and from the vertebral bodies via which vein?
Arteries of the spinal cord
vertebral artery and intercostal arterties
What forms the vertebral artery?`
1 anterior spinal artery and 2 posterior spinal arteries
What is the largest segmental medullary artery?
Great anterior segmental artery (Adamkiewicz)
Posterior intercostal arteries give rise to what artery?
spinal arteries , which give off radicular arteries that supply the roots.
sensory (fine touch, vibration, proprioception)
from ipsilateral lower limb
sensory (fine touch, vibration, propriosception) from
ipsilateral upper limb
Proprioception from limbs to cerebellum
lateral corticospinal tract
motor to ipsilateral anterior horn (mostly limb musculature)
pain and temperature from
of the body
Anterior corticospinal tract
ipsi and contralateral
anterior horn ( mostly axial musculature*
anterior white commissure
pain and temperature fibers cross; anterior corticospinal tract fibers cross
located between the entry point of posterior rootlets and the exit point of anterior rootlets
Carries motor information from the cortex to the anterior horn cells
lateral corticospinal tract
The anterolateral tract
carries pain and temp information from the contralateral side of the body
carries sensory info, cell bodies are in the spinal ganglion, enters the spinal cord in posterolateral sulcus
contains the nerve cell bodies of primary sensory affeents, psueduunipolar neurons; no synapses
carries motor info, exits spinal cord thru anterolateral sulcus
Extensions of pia mater and holds spinal cord in place
separates the anterior and posterior rootlets
motor neurons in the anterior horn project to the muscles supplied by the spinal cord level they exit. Alpha motor neurons are reg. by Renshaw cells
- more anterior
distal muscle groups
= more lateral
proximal muscle groups:
Why is the anterior horn so large?
because upper and lower limbs are supplied
lateral horn contains the visceral motor effeent cell bodies of the
contains the visceral motor efferent cell bodies of the
Collectively k nown as the intermediolateral nucleus
All sensory info from the periphery enters the spinal cord thru posterior horn at the various spinal levels.
do not synapse in the posterior horn but ascend in the
Fibers carrying pain and temp enter the spinal cord in the
posterior horn where they ascend or descend several spinal levels in the
NEXT they synapse in
lamina 1 and in the nucleus proprius
(Lamina III and IV).
Cells from the nucleus proprius extend processes into the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II)
relay station for nonconscious proprioception going to the cerebellum
arising from motor cortex on the right cerebral hemisphere decussates to the left at the lower medulla and travel in the left lateral funiculus of the spinal cord. It then terminates by synapsing with LMN in the ventral gray horn of the spinal cord on the left side.
lesion of this tract at the level of spinal cord in the lateral funiculus lead to
below the level of lesion.
carries vibration and proprioceptive sensations from the
of the body
dorsal column tract
Lesion of this tract at the level of spinal cord leads to
loss of vibration and proprioceptive sensations.
The fibres of this tract carrying pain and temperature sensations decussates to the opposite side in the anterior white commissure of the spinal cord. Hence, left tract carries pain and temperature sensations from the right side of the body.
lesion of this tractwill result in loss of pain and temperature sensations from the contralateral side of the body below the level of lesion.
Lesion to the medial aspect of the lateral white column of the spinal cord causes deficits in
Mediates lateral column of the spinal cord, carries motor info from cerebral cortex to anterior horn cells in the spinal cord
lateral corticospinal tract lesion
Between the arachnoid and pia mater is the ______ which contains the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
This structure serves primarily for decussation (crossing over) of the ascending pain and temperature pathways.
anterior white commissure
This canal is lined by ependymal cells that, along with the choroid plexus in the brain, produce cerebrospinal fluid.
central canal--originates from the fourth ventricle in the brain
have neurons that relay sensory information to the brain.
contain motor nerves that supply the muscles.
control the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
typically carry information regarding sensation—such as touch, proprioception (position sense), temperature, and pain, among others.
convey signals for initiation of movement and maintenance of muscle tone and posture by stimulating muscle contraction.
primarily involved in skilled, voluntary control of skeletal muscle, especially fine distal motor movement of the hand.
Dorsal column and spinothalamic tract synapse in what nucleus of the thalamus before reaching the sensory cortex?
Which structure contains the cell bodies of the 1st order neurons of the spinothalamic and dorsal column tracts
DRG at each spinal level
spinal cord lesion has diminished pain and temp sensation in one of his legs, which tract
lateral part of lateral spinothalamic tract (legs are lateral)- ascending pathway
which tract carries fibes that modulate crude touch and pressure?
anterior spinothalamic tract
Which level of neurons in the spinothalamic tract decussate at the anterior white commisure?
2nd level neurons
Where does the dorsal column decussate before arriving at the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus?
fibers fro the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus decussate and ascend via the
in the medulla (above pyramidal decussation)
a patient with spinal cord lesion has diminished voluntary movement in her arms. Which tract is likely affected?
medial part of the lateral corticospinal tracts (
legs are lateral in the lateral corticospinal, spiinothalamic tracts; arms are medial
a patient with a spinal cord lesion presents with left sided leg weakness. Which spinal cord tract is affected?
left lateral corticospinal tract (
) is affected in a case of left-sided weakness
first order neuron in sensory (dorsal column and spinothalamic pathways)
pseudounipolar neuron (the cell body of which resides in the dorsal root ganglion)
involved in controlling proximal muscles.
anterior corticospinal tract
contains nerves that respond to crude touch and temp
anterior spinothalamic tract
contain nerves that respond to pain and temp
lateral spinothalamic tract
Myelinated preganglionic parasympathetic (craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system) fibers are axons with their cell bodies in the sacral spinal cord
Only myelinated axons in the peripheral nervous, both somatic and visceral (autonomic) are capable of regenerating because of the presence of Schwann cells directing Wallerian degeneration due to their capacity to work with macrophages to phagocytose the myelin debris associated with traumatic injury
Which of the following describes the location that all cell bodies from preganglionic fibers in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) leaving the spinal cord reside in?
: All preganglionic ANS fibers that exit the spinal cord (sympathetic T1-L2, parasympathetic S2-S4) have their cell bodies in the intermediolateral (IML) cell column in the later horn
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