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Lifespan Development - Theories of Lifespan Development - PSYCH EXAM

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Gibson's Theory:
Perceptual Development
Bowlby's Theory:
Emotional Development
Piaget's Theory:
Cognitive Development
Kohlberg's Theory:
Moral Development
Erikson's Theory:
Psychosocial Development
Balte's Theory:
Selection, optimisation and compensation theory
Human Perceptual Systems such as sight, sound, taste, touch and smell are all functioning at birth and play important roles in the infant's survival.
Gibson's Theory of perceptual development
Gibson conducted many experiments on different aspects of perception, particulary the visual perception of infants.
Gibson's Theory of perceptual development
She did not describe perceptual development in terms of age-related changes, abilities or stages, instead she emphasised key processes involved in perceptual development.
Gibson's Theory of perceptual development
Psychologists have been lead to hypothesise about the importance of the psychological bond (attachment) between infants and caregivers in emotional development.
Bowlby's theory of emotional development
Bowlby's thheory stimulated a lot of research interest amongst psychologists who were keen to further understand how an attachment formed and how it impacted on emotional development.
Bowlby's theory of emotional development
The main idea of the attachment theory is that human infants need a secure relationship with an adult caregiver in order to healthy emotional and social development to occur.
Bowlby's theory of emotional development.
Monkey Experiment
Harlow's attachment theory
Harlow found that despite the feeder being on the wire monkey, the monkeys would spend more time with the cloth monkey.
Harlow's attachment theory
The preference for the cloth monkey was evident in particular when the monkey was distressed.
Harlow's attachment theory
Piaget proposed that cognitive development, (the development of mental abilities) occurs as we adapt to the changing world around us.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
The theory proposes that we move through four distinct and sequential stages from birth to adulthood in developing our cognitive abilities.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
It was suggested that individuals donot develop the mental capabilities of a later stage without first having acquired those of an earlier stage.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
It was believed that there are key cognitive accomplishments that are met in each stage.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
STAGES OF PIAGET'S FOUR STAGE THEORY
Sensorimotor stage (birth-2)
Pre-operational stage (2-7)
Concrete operational stage (7-12)
Formal Operational stage (12+)
Piaget's theory of cognitive development
The theory of Moral Development is based on studies he conducted using cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods..
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
On the basis of research findings, Kohlberg concluded that the development of moral reasoning progresses sequentially through a series of developmental stages, similar to the progression through the cognitive stages described by Piaget.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
THREE LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT:
Preconventional, Conventional, postconventional.
Each level had two stages.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Erikson believed that social development occurs through a combination of the effects of psychological processes which take place within individuals and the experiences of individuals during their lifetimes, in particular their interaction with other people.
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
Erikson believed that our internal needs change as we grow older.
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
There are 8 stages in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. According to him, the ages of the eight stages can vary because of individuality, however the order in which individuals progress through the stages is fixed.
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
Erikson believed that it is necessary to experience each crisis before proceeding to the next stage.
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
According to Baltes promoting gains and managing losses are the two main ways of ageing successfullty.
Baltes' selection, optimisation and compensation theory
Selection, optimisation and compensation are three distinct but interrelated processes that are all vital for successful ageing.
Baltes' selection, optimisation and compensation theory.
When a person uses selection, they reduce the number of goals they are trying to achieve, then prioritise those goals.
Baltes' selection, optimisation and compensation theory.
Optimisation involves making the most of abilities, resources and opportunities available to achieve the optimal or best outcome.
Baltes' selection, optimisation and compensation theory
Compensation, or substitution involves developing new strategies to help with dealing for each of their losses.
Baltes' selection, optimisation and compensation theory