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exam 2 questions
Terms in this set (39)
During reaction 1 of glycolysis, the enzyme hexokinase catalyzes the conversion of glucose into _______________, which requires the donation of a high energy phosphate group from ATP.
During reaction 3 of glycolysis, the enzyme phosphofructokinase catalyzes the generation of the product _______________, which requires the donation of a high energy phosphate group from ATP.
How many ATP are generated per glucose as a result of anaerobic lactic acid fermentation?
2 from glycolysis
Lactic acid fermentation occurs in our oxygen-deprived muscle tissue, as well as among the microorganism cultures used to make yogurt, cheese, and pickles.
It is the intermembrane space within the structure of the mitochondrion that develops an extremely basic pH value, due to the pumping of H+ ions into this space.
During reaction 7 of glycolysis, the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-BPG into the product _______________, which requires the addition of ADP to capture a phosphate.
Following glycolysis reaction 3, all reactants and products are doubled in all remaining reactions.
Two full rounds of the Citric Acid cycle yields 2 NADH, 2 CO2, 4 FADH2, & 6 ATP.
Glycolysis must take place in our cytoplasm because our mitochondria have the ability to import _______, but not _________ through their double membranes.
In the visible light spectrum, the shortest wavelengths are in the red color range and the longest wavelengths are in the violet color range.
The key, regulatory steps that control the glycolysis pathway include steps 2, 3, 5, & 10.
Assuming 3 molecules of CO2 entering the light independent reactions, 3 molecules of ATP are required for Stage 3.
During reaction 6 of glycolysis, the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes the only reaction in glycolysis that generates the reduced form of the electron carrier _____________.
Assuming 3 molecules of CO2 entering the Calvin cycle, 3 molecules of GA3P (G3P) will leave the cycle for carbohydrate production.
Desert cacti have evolved the ability to carry out low levels of photosynthesis without opening their stomata at all.
An energy wavelength is measured from crest to crest, or from trough to trough.
In order to transport glucose into our cells, insulin must be present in the bloodstream and bind to its receptor on the surface of our body cells.
Dutch physician & scientist Dr. Jan Ingenhousz discovered photosynthesis in 1779 using glass enclosures, candles, rats, and (of course) green leafy plants.
What event accompanies energy absorption by chlorophyll (or other pigment molecules of the antenna complex)?
An electron is excited and photon energy is transferred to another chlorophyll.
Glycolysis reaction 9 is the only one that generates free H2O.
Glycolysis reactions 7 and 10 are the only ones during glycolysis that generate ATP energy currency.
During reaction 5 of glycolysis, the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase preferentially catalyzes the production of _________________, without the requirement of any additional reactants, because only this product is used during reaction 6.
During reaction 8 of glycolysis, the enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase catalyzes the generation of the product ________________ without the requirement of any additional reactants.
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
produce G3P in order to build organic sugars and other biomolecules
Which of the following are products of the light-dependent reactions that are used in the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH
The thylakoid lumen is very acidic due to high levels of H+ ions pumped in from the stroma.
During reaction 9 of glycolysis, the enzyme enolase catalyzes a dehydration reaction, which generates the product ________________.
The purpose of glycolysis is to trap, split, and then extract energy from glucose.
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.
During reaction 10 of glycolysis, the enzyme pyruvate kinase catalyzes the production of ________________, which requires the addition of ADP to capture a phosphate.
Assuming 3 molecules of CO2 entering the Calvin cycle, RuBisCO catalyzes attachment to 3 molecules of RuBP which break apart into 3 molecules of 3-PGA.
Protein phosphatase is an enzyme that _____.
deactivates proteins/enzymes by removing a phosphate
During reaction 4 of glycolysis, which of these compounds is a product that is not used directly for reaction 6 in the pathway, and is instead forced to convert into its isomer during reaction 5?
When H+ ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is the _____.
generation of a proton-motive force (elevated H+ ions) to power ATP Synthase
The family of protein transporters, including GLUT4, reside constantly on our body cell membrane surface, ready to transport glucose in anytime bloodstream concentrations are elevated.
Throughout our body cells we make via cellular respiration on average about _____ ATP molecules per glucose.
Lycopene, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene all help to absorb excess energy, safely dissipating it as heat, in order to protect seed-bearing structures like fruits.
Which of the following steps in cellular respiration does not build a molecule of ATP?
Pyruvate oxidation reactions
During reaction 2 of glycolysis, the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase catalyzes the production or "quick-step" conversion to the product _________________, without the requirement of any additional reactants.
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