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Terms in this set (124)
What is the primary duty of a phlebotomist?
The collection of blood samples via venipuncture or micro-techniques
What are the four major work duties of the phlebotomy technician?
Equipment, procedure, patient care, records and patient information
Besides blood, what are three other types of fluids will you encounter in a lab?
Urine, feces, and sputum
Define Quality Improvement:
Formal approach to the analysis of performance and the systematic efforts to make it better
List three tasks a phlebotomist may be required to perform:
Equipment assembly, keeping track of supplies, verifying and recording patient information
Define Universal precautions:
Treating ALL blood and bodily fluids as if they are known to be infectious for HIV/AIDS, Hep B, or other bloodborne pathogens
What are the six elements or "links" in the chain of infection:
Infectious disease, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host
Name the three types of protective isolation:
Airborne, contact, and droplet
What is the very first thing you should do in the event of an accidental needle stick injury?
Wash needle stick and cut with soap and water
What is the single, most important way to prevent the spread of infection?
What all is included in personal protective equipment (PPE)?
Gloves, masks, goggles, gowns, coats
Name the three phases in the laboratory testing process
Pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical
What three organizations put out the guidelines for healthcare professionals to follow safety?
CDC, OSHA, and Joint Commission
What information is included in quality control records?
Expiration dates, proper use, stability information, storage information, precision and accuracy of testing supplies/reagent
What type of mask is needed for airborne precautions?
Specially fitted N-95
What is the purpose of a Pareto chart?
Made to show frequency of errors
What is an autoclave used for?
Define Quality control:
System of maintaining standards in manufactured products by testing a sample of the output against the manufacturer specifications
What is the CDC?
Center for Disease Control based in Atlanta
What is a nosocomial infection
Hospital acquired infection
What are the three methods of specimen collections?
Venipuncture, capillary puncture, arterial puncture
What veins are an acceptable alternative for venipuncture?
Cephalic vein and the basilic vein
Name four areas to avoid during the venipuncture procedure
Hematomas, scar tissue, sides of previous mastectomy, sides of paralysis
What is turgor?
The bounce or resilience of a vein
What are the main elements of the specimen label?
Patient first and last name, DOB, date and time of draw, your initials
What is capillary blood composed of?
Arterial, venous, and capillary blood as well as interstitial fluid and intracellular fluids
When is it appropriate/acceptable to use the winged infusion needle?
Small veins, fragile veins, difficult/superficial veins, difficult pt. position, many tubes
Give three reasons you would do a capillary puncture
Micro-volumes of blood needed, veins need to be preserved for IV therapy, infant blood needed
List and define the parts of a multi-sample needle
Bevel - the slanted sharp tip
Lumen - hollow opening
Shaft - the length of the needle
Hilt - threaded part of the needle
Sheath - rubber piece covering the second needle
Hub - plastic sleeve that the needle hilt screws into, also serves as a tube holder
Safety device - engaged immediately after withdrawing the needle to prevent accidental needle sticks
What degree is an arterial puncture performed?
What does AIDET stand for?
Acknowledge, introduce, duration, explain, thank
What should you do if you think you have accidentally punctured an artery?
Calmly remove tourniquet and needle, apply immediate pressure to site, raise pt. arm above head, maintain pressure for at least 10 minutes, visually check bleeding, apply pressure bandage and provide aftercare
Name two things that every specimen that is submitted to the lab must have with it:
Label and requisition form
What is the correct puncture depth, on infants, using the capillary collection method?
At what angle should a blood smear be performed?
What is the safety mechanism on a lancet called?
What is the correct angle for needle insertion when performing a venipuncture?
What is the most common specimen collection system used in venipuncture?
Evacuated blood collection
Name three things that can influence blood pressure at different places in the body:
Valves in veins, gravity, and movement from contracting skeletal muscles
Name two activities that can change a person's heart rate:
Anxiety, stress, caffeine, nicotine, some medications, overactive thyroid, exercise, hyperventilation, fever, diet pills, cocaine, pain, low oxygen levels, heart valve disease
What is the function of blood?
Carry nutrients, oxygen, electrolytes, hormones and waste removal
What are the three stages to the life cycle of the red blood cells?
Developmental (7 days to mature, erythropoiesis, reticulocytes, 2 million RBCs per second created) , Functional (RBCs live between 100-120 days), Senescence (eryptosis, changes in the plasma membrane, takes place at the same time as the production of RBCs)
What are the two kinds of white blood cells?
Granulocytes and Lymphocytes
Name the three major types of blood vessels in the body and their purpose:
Arteries - carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and always have a pulse
Veins - carry deoxygenated blood to the heart Capillaries - smallest vessels and are responsible for exchange of chemicals and water between blood and tissue
What do the pulmonary veins do?
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart
What is the function of the pulmonary arteries?
Carry deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs
What is the function of capillaries?
Responsible for exchange of chemicals and water between blood and tissue
What are the three layers of the heart?
Epicardium - top
Myocardium - middle
Endocardium - innermost
steady, stable state of life
an iron-containing pigment which gives red blood cells their color
process of development of new RBCs
Hemopoietic stem cells:
developing cell in the bone marrow
Systolic Blood Pressure:
the blood pressure at the time when the heart is contracting
Diastolic Blood Pressure:
the blood pressure at the time when the heart is relaxing
the aging of erythrocytes
Blood Pressure (BP) :
pressure exerted by the circulatory system or circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels
The designation of mmHg is:
millimeters of mercury
A normal blood pressure reading is:
Blood pressure is measured:
on the inside of an elbow (brachial artery) on a person's upper arm
Below 60 beats per minute unless you are an athlete is considered dangerous and is called
Over 100 bpm is called
13 years and older bpm is:
Adult athletes bpm is:
There is also a vessel called a sinusoid located in the:
liver, spleen, and bone marrow
The cardiovascular system is made up of the
heart, arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries
The cardiovascular system is responsible for:
distributing oxygenated blood throughout the body by way of the arteries and returning deoxygenated blood to the heart by way of the veins
The right side of the heart is the:
The lefts side of the heart is the:
systemic circulatory side
Name the three layers of blood vessels:
Outer layer - Tunica externa Middle layer - Tunica media Inner layer - Tunica intima
Blood cells make up ___ of blood tissue. Plasma makes up the remaining ___
45% and 55%
Bone marrow produces about ___ of blood cells
RBCs are the only cell in the body that does not contain _________
Immature red blood cells are known as:
defend against bacterial and fungal infections; form pus granulocyte
defend against parasites granulocyte
responsible for allergic response by releasing histamine granulocyte
produce antibodies to bind to pathogens; grouped into B Cells, T Cells, and NK Cells lymphoid cell
waste removal lymphoid cell
Name two types of gloves:
Exam and surgical
Name three types of antiseptics used in phlebotomy:
Alcohol, iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate
What is the most common anticoagulant in clinical chemistry?
List two types of sharp's disposal units:
Single use and reusable
What is the purpose of the centrifuge?
To separate fluids of different densities
Name the three regulations for specimen transport:
All specimens must be placed in a leak-proof container, tubes must be bagged in special bio-hazard specimen bags, requisition slip must be placed on the outside pocket of the bag
What is the order of draw?
Blood culture, Light blue, Red ST, Gold/Tiger top SST, Light green, Dark green, Lavender, Grey, Yellow
What does EDTA stand for and what color tube(s) can you find it?
What is the best way to protect a light-sensitive specimen?
Wrap it in foil
How long should you keep a tourniquet on a patient?
No longer than 1-2 minutes
What is the purpose of potassium oxalate and sodium fluoride?
Remove calcium and preserve glucose
What is the name of the gel barrier in a serum separator tube?
Thixotropic polymer gel
What additive is in the yellow top tube?
What is the correct blood to the additive ratio in the light blue top tube?
What testing would be performed on a dark (royal) blue top tube?
Heavy metal and toxicology
What is the difference between hemolysis and hemoconcentration?
Hemolysis - break down of RBC
Hemoconcentration - increased number of large molecules and formed elements
What is a hematoma?
Blood pooling in the tissue around the veins being punctured
What department would you send a yellow top tube for paternity testing?
Give three examples of specimens that need to be kept cold after collection:
Blood gases, gastrin, ammonia, lactic acid, catecholamines, renin, parathyroid determination
What is one of the safest and most efficient methods of specimen transport?
Pneumatic tube system
Mature in bone marrow
Produce antibodies used to attack invading bacteria, viruses, and toxins outside of the cells
Mature in the thymus
Attack and destroy cells that are infected inside of the cytoplasm
Natural Killer cells control several types of tumors and antimicrobial infections by limiting their spread and subsequent tissue damage
Name three ways in which alcohol is excreted from the body:
Liver, exhalation, and urine
List three components a unit of blood provides for patients:
Red blood cells, plasma, and platelets
Name four things a chain of custody form should include for forensic testing:
Person's name collecting the specimen, person's name that received the specimen, person's name given the specimen, and length of time each person handled it
What are the four symptoms of diabetes?
Frequent urination, blurred vision, lightheadedness, persistent thirst
What is the purpose of a glucose tolerance test?
Measures the ability of a patient to metabolize a large dose of oral glucose
What does a sphygmomanometer need to be inflated to during a bleeding time procedure?
What is hemochromatosis?
A disorder where the body absorbs too much iron from the food eaten
For a therapeutic phlebotomy procedure, what should be included on the physician's request?
Amount of blood to be withdrawn, frequency, and desired hemoglobin level
Name three things a patient cannot do during a 3-hour glucose tolerance test:
Eat, drink, smoke, consume alcohol, or leave
What is an autologous blood donation?
A person donates their own blood for later use
Give an example of the most common timed specimen?
What is polycythemia?
Increased amount of circulating red blood cells and volume
List 3 conditions that can be caused by hemochromatosis:
Liver cirrhosis, diabetes, chf, higher skin pigmentation, and irregular heatbeat
List 4 types of specimens that could be collected for forensic testing:
Blood, skin, hair, nails, saliva, semen, bones, sweat, vegetation, and insects
What type of cleansing agent is used during a blood donation collection?
Iodine or chlorhexidine gluconate
What type of specimen would show a milky, clouded serum?
What type of antiseptic is used for blood alcohol testing?
Non- alcohol solution
Give three examples of timed specimens:
Glucose, iron, cortisol, cardiac enzyme, hormone assays, potassium, or peak and trough medication levels
When is the highest level of alcohol present in the blood?
About one hour after having a drink
How long is a patient instructed to fast before a timed specimen collection?
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