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What birds are thrushes?
Robins and bluebirds
Why are robins and bluebirds considered thrushes even though they are not brown toned or spotted?
They are when they are young
What birds are mimids?
What are mimids associated with?
America's and mimicking other bird songs
How are thrashers different from thrushes?
Shaped differently and thrash about in leaf litter
What is the conservation concern with the wood thrush?
Neotropical migrant that is heavily parasitized by cowbirds
What is the management technique used for Bluebirds?
Supported with nest boxes due to competition with exotics
What is the conservation issue with Cozumel thrasher?
Likely went extinct off the coast of Mexico due to Hurricane Wilma in 2008
What bird is used as an example for the consequence of climate change?
Long history in _________________ and _________________ for management and conservation of bird populations. For example, people with large _________________ went _________________ and other consumptive _________________ _________________ and hired managers to _________________ populations of game species. However, the management techniques they used were pretty _________________ like _________________ being shot because they killed game birds. These efforts historically have focused on relatively _________________ taxonomic groups. In 1960's and 70's it expanded from _________________ birds to _________________ species. Now it has expanded from game species to _________________ species.
Europe, USA, estates, hunting, natural resources, increase, bad, hawks, few, game, endangered, all
What are the four most common species that have been of conservation priority, historically?
Upland game birds
Charismatic megafauna (eagles)
Neotropical migrants (most recent)
At _________________ species worldwide. About _________________ of these are _________________ or _________________ but recent climate change studies say that up to _________________ of all species may be _________________.
10,400 , 1,000 , endangered, threatened, 1/3, threatened
What are the top 10 nations with the most endangered species?
Why are Indonesia and Ecuador on the top 10 list?
They are countries made up of a lot of islands and bird species if put in danger have no where to go
Why are places like Brazil, Mexico, Peru, and Columbia on the top 10 list?
Most species rich area due to the topics
Why are China and India on the top 10 list?
They have huge populations that consume a lot of natural resources
Why is the United States on the top 10 list?
Florida Keys and Hawaii are both tropical islands
Does Hawaii get a lot of funding for conservation since it has so many endangered species?
No, too small of an area with a small population
What species of birds are declining the most?
What are the dominant causes of extinction?
Loss of critical habitats
Live bird trade
_________________ of all extinctions since the year 1600 have been _________________ species. For example the _________________ bird went extinct because sailors would go through a popular canal and stop at the only island the _________________ bird was located and _________________ them. The _________________ _________________ _________________ Wren was killed because of a _________________ _________________.
90%, island, dodo, dodo, kill, St. Stephens Island, house cat
LOSS OF CRITICAL HABITATS
_________________ _________________ factor for _________________ of extinctions on U.S. Endangered species list. For example _________________ loss in the United States and _________________ _________________ of Brazil has the highest number of extinct species because _________________ _________________ is so bad in this area.
Single biggest, 90%, wetland, Atlantic Forest, habitat loss
LIVE BIRD TRADE
In most years _________________ to _________________ million birds are exported by _________________ countries.
In 2007, the European Union _________________ import of _________________ exotic birds due to worries about the _________________ _________________.
_________________ are the largest imported bird and then _________________ and _________________ are the second. Pet traders harvest _________________ chicks by _________________ _________________ the entire _________________ that the nest is in.
2, 5, developing
banned, all, avian flu
Finch, parrots, parakeets, parrots, cutting down, tree
Considered major problem in the _________________. For example with _________________ and Rachel Carson's _________________ _________________. It is _________________ important now (although _________________ still sold abroad & conservatives are now attacking Rachel Carson for mass _________________.
Current issues include
_________________ as an agriculture _________________, _________________ _________________ in California falcon eggs, and _________________ in the California Condor.
past, DDT, Silent Spring, DDT, murder
Neonicotinoids, insecticide, flame retardants, lead
Why are conservatives calling Rachel Carson a mass murder?
They think that DDT wasn't as bad and so it is not put in places where it is needed to combat malaria but all of that information is wrong and now mosquitos in those areas have become resistant to DDT.
What is the major problem with neonicotoids?
Major problem for bee and might mess up the navigation and orientation systems in migratory birds
Hunting _______________ a major problem in the _______________, but illegal _______________ to use native birds for _______________ _______________ in _______________.
Still major issue _______________ of _______________: Examples "_______________" crisis, _______________ of _______________ in _______________.
was, past, now, commercial markets, USA
rest, world, bushmeat, netting, migrants, Malta
What is the "bushmeat" crisis in Malta?
It's a tradition to net migrant birds and throw them all into a stew pot which is damaging migrant numbers.
What are Old World groups sometimes confused with?
New World sparrows
What is the morphology of finches and passer sparrows?
winter irruptive species
What is the conservation issue with House sparrows?
European, declining in Native rage, also declining here in North America
Also due to habitat change of agriculture switching from livestock and pasture land to industrial farming.
What bird is native to the Western USA but introduced to the east in the 1940s?
What species was introduced because someone got homesick and his family sent him a care package of the certain bird and released it into Central Park?
What are some of the lesser issues affecting bird populations?
Wind energy, cats, roads, buildings
_______________ _______________ of wind energy turbines had a construction that encourged birds to use them as _______________, especially _______________ and _______________.
Also, early wind farms (especially one in _______________) did not consider _______________ of birds relative to the _______________ of turbines.
Result: many bird _______________, most famously the _______________ _______________ at _______________. (Pass, California)
Early forms, perches, Eagles, hawks
California, movement, placement
deaths', Golden Eagle, Alatamont.
WIND ENERGY NOT REALLY A PROBLEM
_______________ turbines have _______________ designs, eliminating the _______________. Movement of turbines as little as _______________ _______________ can dramatically reduce bird strikes.
Meta-analysis of published studies show that the average turbine kills _______________ than _______________ birds per year. _______________ _______________ events (_______________ per night) are very _______________ and due to _______________.
Modern, different, perches, 100 meters
less, 5, mass mortality, 3, rare, fog
Of all the major sources of bird mortality (other than _______________ _______________), the biggest one is _______________ _______________.
One review estimated that free-ranging domestic cats kill _______________ to _______________ billion birds per year.
Majority of kills by feral ("_______________") cats, but _______________ cats kill _______________ birds than suspected by owners.
habitat loss, domestic cats
unowned, household, more
How many birds were historically estimated? (land birds only)
2 to 5 billion
How many birds are currently estimated?
10 t0 15 billion in the spring and 20 to 30 billion in the fall
What percentage of birds are killed each year by cats?
10 to 20 percent
What is assumed in the trap-neuter- release program?
1. Nuetered cats won't reproduce
2. Released cats will prevent other cats from settling (because they are territorial)
3. Populations will get lower eventually as cats die.
4. Feral cats replace native predators so don't have a strong effect on other native wildlife
What assumptions are wrong in the trap-neuter-release program?
1. Feral cats are leading killers of native wildlife and hunt different way than extirpated native predators
2. Feral cats are vectors of disease
3. Feral cat colonies don't decline in size overtime
4. Feral cat colonies do not resist invasion (don't decline in population).
Collions with vehicles kills _______________ to _______________ birds annually.
_______________ data to quantify _______________, _______________, or _______________ patterns of collision risk.
_______________ evidence to suggest that collisions contribute to _______________ _______________, but probably impact _______________ populations.
Little, regional, seasonal, taxonomic
No, rage-wide declines, local
Collisions with buildings killed _______________ million to _______________ billion birds per year.
Collisions most common when windows _______________ _______________ or birds can see "_______________" (_______________ on _______________ side of glass).
Can put _______________ on the windows to make the them more visible or _______________ between the glass.
_______________ _______________ in Indy is also supposed to help by _______________ _______________ lights at _______________ during _______________ season where lights are only turned off during ____________________ ____________________ ____________________.
reflect vegetation, corridor, vegetation, other
Lights Out, turning off, night, migration, bad weather conditions
What families are the "New World nine-primaried oscines"
Warblers & relatives
Most passerines have how many primaries on each wing?
What birds were once in a huge family called the Emberizidae?
American Wood Warblers
____________________ are a very popular group in ____________________.
They are ____________________ ____________________ and have issues with ____________________.
warblers, spring, neotropical migrants, cowbirds
What warbler species are considered endangered?
"Our endangered species": most ____________________ ____________________ listed bird in ____________________. They breed almost exclusively in the ____________________ ____________________, ____________________ and winters in ____________________. Has always seemed to be ____________________ and the first ____________________ wasn't found until the ____________________.
prominent, federally, midwest, Lower Peninsula, Michigan, Bahamas, rare, nest, 90's
What very habitat is the Kirtland Warbler found in?
Young Jackpine stands that are between 6 and 20 years old
Why were young jackpine forests becoming increasingly rare in most of the 20th century?
Era of fire suppression (wildfires were not seen as good so the forests became overgrown)
What was the response to the decline in Kirtland Warbler populations?
3 large management areas set aside in 1957, but populations continued to decline
One problem Identified : ____________________ ____________________ ____________________. In 1972, ____________________ to ____________________ percent of all nests ____________________. ____________________ control started in 1972 and ____________________ dropped to ____________________ of nests. Populations ____________________ rebound.
Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism, 55, 70, parasitized, Cowbird, parasitism, 3%, didn't
In 1980, what helped the Kirtland's Warbler populations to increase?
Huge fire that burned 10,000 acres
What is the current management of the Kirtland's Warbler?
Jack pine forests are burned regularly
What is the current population and recovery goal of Kirtland's Warbler?
more than 2380, more than 1,000
Where to the Kirtland's Warbler now breed due to management techniques?
Michigan's upper peninsula
What are two concerns now facing Kirtland's Warbler?
"Conservation reliant species"
How is climate change supposed to affect the Kirtland's Warbler species?
Jack pines will shift north of current soil type and the new soil type will not provide the proper habitat for the bird
Conservation reliant species
Will always need active management
What is controversial about the conservation reliant species?
Wording of Endangered species act implies a species is only recovered when a species needs no management, but these species will always need their populations will always need to be maintained.
Why are having buildings on at night dangerous to birds?
Birds get confused with a constant light and disoriented which causes them to circle and run into buildings.
What is the largest flying bird in North America?
Where are California Condors found?
southern California but was once more widespread
Other than lead poisoning what was some of the issues with California Condor?
-Sensitive to human disturbance
-Extremely low reproduction
What are some examples of the New World 9-primaried oscines species?
New World Sparrows and cardinals are?
9-primaried oscines found in the New World and are neotropical migrants
Sparrows are typical of many ______________ ______________ which are declining more than ______________ birds.
grassland species, forest
What sparrow is endangered in Indiana and what are they attracted to?
Henslow's Sparrow, restored grasslands including former coal mine lands in South West Indiana
What is the startling headline from 2019?
In the last 50 years, North American bird populations have declined by 30% (3 billion birds)
What habitats are seeing the sharpest decline in bird species (first and second)
2. Boreal forest
What is the only habitat type that hasn't seen a decline in population? Why?
Wetlands, only habitat we have protected consistently
Have the bird populations in Indiana seen the same decline as in the rest of the world?
What are the top 3 bird species that are declining?
1. Sparrows (grasslands)
3. Blackbirds (most abundant but populations are still declining)
What is the number one bird that has been increasing in population?
Forest songbird that breeds in the USA and Canada, and have substantial populations that winter south of the US-Mexico border.
Do hawks, shorebirds, and waterfowl fit the definition of a neotropical migrant? Is it applied to them?
What are the three forms of evidence of population declines in neotropical migrants?
-Christmas bird counts
-Breeding bird survey
What is the issue with Christmas bird counts?
long-term data set, but not useful for migrants since they aren't here in winter
When did the Christmas bird count start and who is it run by?
1900, National Audubon Society
Breeding bird surveys
Roadside survey done by volunteers.
What does breeding bird surveys mainly cover?
When did the breeding bird survey start and who is it run by?
1966, U.S. Geological Survey
Birders can upload bird sightings to a data base
In what places are there possible causes due to the decline in population for neotropical migrants?
1. Wintering grounds
2. Breeding grounds
3. Migratory stopover habitat
4. None of the above
What are the possible cause (s) of the decline in neotropical migrant species in their wintering grounds?
Habitat loss in Latin America
What are the possible cause (s) of the decline in neotropical migrant species in their breeding grounds?
Habitat loss in North America
Habitat fragmentation which leads to increased cowbird parasitism and corvid nest predation
WHO CARES (ABOUT BIRDS)?
1. Major _______________ _______________ for _______________, _______________, _______________ areas.
2. Major _______________ on _______________ and _______________ issues
3. _______________ million Americans self-identify as _______________, _______________% of population (even higher in _______________ _______________ and _______________)
user group, refuges, parks, management
stakeholder, land-use, environmental
20.4, birder, 33, United Kingdom, Sweden
number of _______________ has increased _______________% since 1983
_______________ Americans know more than _______________ species
_______________ _______________ _______________ to Birds sold over 500,000 copies in first year.
birders, 230, 300,000, 100, Sibly Field Guide
What are the characteristics of the average birder (5)?
-Belongs to many conservation groups
-Spends money on bird stuff
Birding is a _______________ _______________ buisness annually. About _______________ the economic impact of hunting. Significant user group for _______________, _______________ companies, _______________, etc.
$20 billion, double, parks, tour, guides
_______________ _______________ companies are the _______________ growing part of the tourism industry. Some companies specialize in _______________ both _______________ trips and _______________.
Nature tour, fastest, birds, domestic, worldwide
What are the possible cause (s) of the decline in neotropical migrant species in their migratory stopover habitats?
Increased mortality while migrating
What is the possible cause of the decline in neotropical migrant species if it is not due to changes in their wintering, breeding, and migratory stopover habitats (aka none of the above)?
Could be long-term pattern that we do not understand (but this isn't likely)
What is the name of the stopover habitat in Whiting, Indiana that is the only natural land on Lake Michigan that is filled with migrating birds?
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