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62 terms

Unit 2a - Chemistry & Biochemistry

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matter
that which has mass and occupies space
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
atom
smallest particle of an element
proton
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
ion
atom that has a positive or negative charge
ionic bond
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
reactants
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
products
the substances that are formed by the chemical change
polar molecule
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
structural formula
A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds.
molecular formula
a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
an attraction between molecules of different substances
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
aqueus solution
solution in which water is the solvent
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Has a pH value less than 7.
base
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution. Has a pH value greater than 7.
pH scale
a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
neutral
Neither acidic nor basic. Has a pH value of 7.
organic compound
A compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen.
inorganic compound
A compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen.
monomer
a single unit that can join together with other single units to form polymers
dimer
a molecule composed of two monomers
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
dehydration synthesis
process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together
hydrolysis
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
carbohydrate
An organic compound containing C, H, and O. Includes sugars, starches, and fiber.
monosaccharide
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.
lipid
an organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
steroid
a lipid molecule.
example: cholesterol
saturated fat
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature.
unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be liquid at room temperature.
indicator
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
bromothymol blue
the indicator that turns yellow in acids, and blue in bases
phenolphthalein
indicator which is clear in acidic solution and pink in basic solution
protein
an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; ie. enzymes, antibodies, receptors, pigments, hormones.
amino acid
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
peptide bond
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.
denaturation
a process in which a protein loses it's shape, thereby becoming biologically inactive. It occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt, and temperature.
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
active site
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits
glycogen
A polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals that stores extra energy.
starch
A polysaccharide in plants that stores extra energy.
glycerol
with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids
fatty acid
with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids
cellulose
a polysaccharide that makes up the cell wall of plants (fiber)
chitin
a polysaccharide that is used to build the exoskeletons of animals and the cell wall of fungal cells
antibody
a protein that is produced during an immune response
pigment
a protein that has a specific function in an organism and produces color
protein hormone
a protein that acts as a chemical messenger in the body