Unit 2a - Chemistry & Biochemistry
that which has mass and occupies space
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
smallest particle of an element
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
atom that has a positive or negative charge
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
the substances that are formed by the chemical change
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds.
a chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms.
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
attraction between molecules of the same substance
an attraction between molecules of different substances
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
the dissolved substance in a solution
solution in which water is the solvent
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Has a pH value less than 7.
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution. Has a pH value greater than 7.
a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
Neither acidic nor basic. Has a pH value of 7.
A compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen.
A compound that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen.
a single unit that can join together with other single units to form polymers
a molecule composed of two monomers
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together
a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
An organic compound containing C, H, and O. Includes sugars, starches, and fiber.
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues.
an organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
a lipid molecule.
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms; tend to be solid at room temperature.
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms; tend to be liquid at room temperature.
(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance
the indicator that turns yellow in acids, and blue in bases
indicator which is clear in acidic solution and pink in basic solution
an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; ie. enzymes, antibodies, receptors, pigments, hormones.
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.
a process in which a protein loses it's shape, thereby becoming biologically inactive. It occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt, and temperature.
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits
A polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals that stores extra energy.
A polysaccharide in plants that stores extra energy.
with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids
with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids
a polysaccharide that makes up the cell wall of plants (fiber)
a polysaccharide that is used to build the exoskeletons of animals and the cell wall of fungal cells
a protein that is produced during an immune response
a protein that has a specific function in an organism and produces color
a protein that acts as a chemical messenger in the body