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Physical Science Final Exam
Terms in this set (65)
What is the equation for speed? What are the units for speed?
S = d/t
What is the equation for velocity? What are the units for velocity?
V = d/t
m/s with direction
What is the difference between speed and velocity?
Velocity includes direction
What is the formula for acceleration?
What is the constant for gravity on earth?
What accelerates slower? Objects with more mass or less mass?
Objects with more mass
What would have the least acceleration if the same force is applied? A bowling ball or a baseball?
a bowling ball
it has more mass
Two spheres of different masses fall freely from the top of a building; if friction is ignored the spheres will have the same ______________ 10 m above the ground?
What is inertia?
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
What would have the most inertia? A bus, a car, an elephant, or a bike?
What is the formula for momentum
What is the conservation of momentum?
momentum cannot be created or destroyed; it stays the same after a collision and is transferred between objects
If two astronauts collide in space their momentum will be
In order for an object to be accelerating it must be
speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction
The combination of all forces acting on an object
Forces that produce a nonzero net force, which changes an object's motion
Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions; either has NO motion or CONSTANT motion
Is a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour a balanced force?
yes. because it has a constant speed
While putting out a fire, a firefighter feels the force of the hose pulling on him. What is the best explanation for this?
Newton's third law; for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; he feels the equal and opposite force of the water
Explain how a rocket can move through outer space with no matter for it to push on. Draw a force diagram to represent this.
Newton's third law states that for every action there is an equal an opposite reaction. A rocket can travel through space because of this law. The action of the fuel pushing out of the rocket creates an equal and opposite reaction that pushes the rocket forward.
A racecar is traveling in a circular path at a constant speed. if the car is not changing speed, how can it be accelerating?
The car is accelerating because it is changing direction. Changing direction changes velocity, and acceleration is calculated using velocity so therefore it is accelerating.
What is newton's first law and give an example explained.
An object in motion/ rest will stay at motion/rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Ex. A car crash-all the passengers will continue to move the same way the car was after the crash until acted upon by an unbalnced force such as a seat belt, the steering wheel, the windshield
What is newton's second law and give an example explained.
F=MA an object will accelerate in the same direction net force is applied
Ex. A kicked ball will move in the same direction you kicked it
What is newton's third law of motion and give an example explained.
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
ex. a rocket moving through space, the action of the fuel pushing out of the rocket causes the rocket to move forward are the reaction
What is centripetal acceleration?
The acceleration that occurs in circular motion
define kinetic energy
energy of motion
define potential energy
what is the equation for potential energy
what is the constant for gravity on earth
stored energy within a battery is what type of energy
chemical potential energy
What is the conservation of energy?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
is this true to the conservation of energy: a block sliding freely on level ice will speed up until it hits a wall
Define radiation and give an example
Transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
EX: a car heating up in the sun
Define convection and give an example
Transfer of energy through fluids
EX. lava lamp
Define conduction and give an example
transfer of energy through direct contact
ex. a metal spoon heating up by stirring coffee
What is a solar cell used for?
converting radiant energy (sunlight) into electrical energy
What requires more energy to raise its temperature, water or metals?
Define renewable resource and give examples
can replenish itself faster than we consume it
ex. solar energy, wind, thermal energy, hydroelectricity
define non-renewable recourse and give examples
cannot replenish itself faster than we can consume it
coal, oil, petroleum
coal, petroleum, and gas are examples of what
fossil fuels and non renewables
Why do we need alternative energy sources?
we have a limited supply of fossil fuels
How is nuclear energy produced?
splitting uranium atoms to release energy
Is nuclear energy renewable?
List advantages to nuclear energy
it is small/compact plants
it does not release greenhouse gasses
it produces a lot of energy
List disadvantages to nuclear energy
it can be dangerous; accidents can happen
it produces radioactive waste
there is no storage plan for waste
it is not renewable
What are alternative sources of energy in society
solar energy, hydroelectricity, thermal energy, wind
A student connects three identical light bulbs in parallel circuit to a dry cell as shown below. What happens when the student removes one of the light bulbs from its socket?
they will all stay lit at the same brightness
What would make two objects repel each other?
Magnetic fields are strongest at
What is a series curcuit?
has one path for current to follow
what is a parallel circuit?
it has more than one path for current to follow
What is frequency? what is the unit ?
number of waves passing in one second
In one second 3 waves pass a given point. what is the frequency?
As the frequency of an electromagnetic wave increases what happens to wavelength ?
long wavelengths diffract around objects than shorter wavelengths
If a wave is traveling at a certain speed and its frequency is doubled, what happens to the wavelength of that wave?
it would be divided in half
What do waves transfer?
Why would a piece of paper appear blue
it reflects blue light
objects that absorb all colors of light and reflect little to no light back to your eye will appear ____________
what technology makes use of radio waves
What wave behavior does sonar use?
What type of interference increases amplitude?
Sound waves travel fastest in solids. Explain why this occurs. Use the words energy, matter, particles, and transfer in your explanation.
Energy transfers in matter from particle to particle. The closer these particles are together the faster the energy is transferred. Solids have the closest particles therefore waves transfer through solids the fastest.
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