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the simplest texture consisting of a single melodic line, singing in octaves also is considered this due to the repeating nature of the octave, number of performers does not matter-if everyone sings or plays the same melodic line, it is this
music that consists of more than one note sounding simultaneously(excluding simple doubling at the octave)
involves the independence of pitch content, rhythm , or both, there are three distinct subcategories: polyrhythm, homophony, and polyphony
melodic independence but rhythmic similarity, one melody dominates over a subordinate accompaniment
POLYPHONY AS SUBCATEGORY
the layering of melodic lines that are independent melodically and rhythmically, rounds or canons are most basic example, closely related is counterpoint
chant often described as out tf the body due to its free-flowing rhythm and smooth style, words of melody and this closely linked, considered to be inseparable, melodic outline often follows accentuation pattern of the words, non-metered rhythm, monophonic, myth of divine transmission of chant to Pope Gregory
notation that begins to appear in the 9th century in the form of small graphic symbols usually placed above words in liturgical books
added voice in earliest polyphony either above or below the chant ('instrument")-the genre itself adopted the same name
NOTRE DAMN SCHOOL
showcased parisian flowerin of arts, learning, this school of composers was greatly influenced by leonin and his successor perotin's style especially in organum
MOTET (13TH CENTURY STYLE)
sped up the tenor voice, making it only slightly slower than the upper voices, polytextual, early motet generally had three voices, including teh ntenor, which still carried a portion of chant that was often repeated, becomes on of the primary religious genres along with the mass cycle
a pre-existing melody, "fixed melody", usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served a s the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
GUILLIAME DE MACHAUT
greatest 14th-century French musician and poet-influential in sacred sphere with motets, on of the first polyphonic settings of the complete Mass ordinary cycle; Secular: monophonic- last important figure in trouvere tradition, words and music one, as in chant-polyphonic; wealth of chansons(songs) for three voices usually in one of the formes fixes
french for song and referring to a French secular polyphonic work, which was generally set to courtly love poems written in one of several fix text forms
FIXED TEXT FORMS
poetic forms-the rondeau, ballade, and virelai-established the musical repetition scheme of the chansons
MOTET (15TH CENTURY ONWARD)
applies to any setting of a liturgical text (except Mass Ordinary), shift from polytextual to monotextual, less frequent use of a pre-existing cantus firmus, four voices becomes norm (occasionally more) voices increasingly equal in style and importance; emergence of imitation
polyphonic technique in which each voice enters independently with a similar melodic idea (motive), then blends in with the other voices
a mass composed entirely anew, not based on a pre-existing melody or composition
GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA
(c. 1525-1594), one of many great Italian composers of his era: unlike most of his contemporaries, he has remained famous without interruption since his death; reputation tied closely to the Catholic church in Rome; Icon for the polyphonic tradition as a whole, his style still is taught in counterpoint classes today; many of his works respond to the demands of the Council of Trent (pure vocal style, clarity of text)
most important italian secular genre of of polyphony in 16th century, early versions by italian composers were simple mostly homophonic in texture, franco-flemish composers pioneered a style of this that was closer to the sacred motet:late 16th cent. style was richer/more complex; word painting, radical use of dissonance, ignoring rules of counterpoint, incorporation of instruments and chromaticism
expressing specific words and ideas of the text with different musical elements like dynamics, rhythms, tempo, ect.
(1567-1643) his earlier madrigals continue the 16th century tradition (alternating textures, word painting, freedom in use of dissonance for expression), conservative contemporaries attacked his use of dissonance as improper to the contrapuntal style-he defined it as "second practice", later works demonstrate teh emergence of a new style: declamatory rather than melodic vocal style, departure from the equal-voiced texture of sacred counterpoint towards solo or duet lines over a simpler, harmonic bass line (monody)
Monteverdi's "second practice"-named it this when conservative contemporaries attacked his use of dissonance as improper to the contrapuntal style
first widely succesful _____ is Monteverdi's L'Orfeo, performed in Mantua in 1607 for a select audience, makes use of a large variety of musical forces, including a large and varied orchestra, soloists, and chorus
this type of accompaniment style where chordal instruments assume a new importance as the primary accompaniment for the monodic style, using figured bass was a defining feature of Baroque music: a melodic bass instrument (cello, basson, etc.) often double d the bass line becoming standard as the 17th century progressed (continuo group)
during middle ages & renaissance, there were first 4 then 6 different types of scales (modes); half of these modes have a minor third above the tonic, half have a major third; by end of 17th century, began to recognize just two modes, major and minor(based on which type of third was above the tonic);composer began to codify basic harmonic progression based on scale tendencies; V-I increasingly recognized as the fundamental harmonic progression
a vocal genre for solo singers and instrumental accompaniment, influenced by operatic style; originated in Italy in the 17th century as short pieces for intimate performance settings-not meant to be staged; based on lyrical, dramatic, or narrative poetry
the art of combining in a single texture to or more melodic lines, includes contrary motion, imitation, fugues, and all the rules of dissonance
similar to trio sonata texture, Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments (the concertino) and orchestra (the ripieno)
part of the Baroque movement towards fixity, fast vs. slow movements, contrasting affects between movements, simple dynamic markings (forte, piano), sectional contrasts (ritornello vs. episode, A vs. B)
meant for intimate settings, such as inside a room, small ensemble music for up to about 10 players, with one player to a part, sonata leading form of this in later Baroque
one solo instrument plus basso continuo group (usually both a chordal and a bass melody instrument)
two melody instruments plus basso continuo group (the bass line is considered the third line of the trio)
similar to solo sonata texture, based on interaction between solo sections and tutti sections(often in Ritornello form)
type of imitation popular in Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint, originally for solo keyboard, descended directly from Renaissance vocal polyphony and its imitative texture of woven melodic lines, cultivated principally by Germans, especially by Bach, specialized form of polyphonic imitation, involing on main theme, or subject througout, second voice responds to the initial statement of the subject with the answer
"refrain" section, for full orchestra, short recurring instrumental psasage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto, always have the same music, though sometimes transposed to different keys or played in abbreviated formes
sections played by the soloist or the orchestra with varying accompaniment (alone, with another instrument, with basso continuo, or with full orchestra), contrast both with the ritornello and with eachother: also referred to in fugues as lengthy passages in which no new statements of the subject occur
fundamental part of the Lutheran liturgy from the 16th century, related to congregational hymn style of today: composers often use these as basis for new composition; cantus firmus (tune often in long notes), imitation (phrases of the tune used as starting points form imitative technique), and free exploration (loose paraphrase of chorale tune used as a basis for improvisatory exploration
become a favorite genre for German Lutheran compsers of teh Baroque, with the following characteristics: arias, reicitatives, choruses (overtures occasionally), instrumental accompaniment (simple or complex), represents a unified story, scene or theme with mixture of scripture and newly written commentary, incorporated into the liturgy
any complete polyphonic setting of the ordinary, which includes the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo Sanctus, and Agnus Dei; all parts of the mass that are kept the same every mass-does not include the proper which changes
"serious opera" tragic Italian opera, in 18th century was highly conventionalized, using the libretti of the Italian poet Metastsio as model: conflict of human passions(two pairs of lovers),usually drawn from Greek or Roman classical stories, three acts, with alternation between recitative and aria, aria was the primary focus of musical interest
multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key
instrumental endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century,nstrumental music based on an extra-musical image, text, or idea - exists before the Romantic era (e.g., Vivaldi's Spring Concerto) but becomes very important during this period
chamber music ensemble of two violins viola, and cello, also a multimovement composition for this ensemble
4 movements of classical chamber & symphonic music: Allegro, Slow, Minuet trio, Allegro
form for first movement of sonata, includes three sections: Exposition; first theme is in tonic, modulates through trasition to the dominant for a second theme, then repeats exposition-Development; mandy different keys, exploration of themes-Recapitulation;back to the tonic, 1st theme repeated, non-transitional transition to 2nd theme but stays in tonic
first section of sonata-allegro form, first theme in tonic, transition to dominant, second theme, cadence, then repeat
third section of sonata-allegro form, back in the tonic for the entire section, both first and second themes repeated, this time second theme is in the tonic
MINUET AND TRIO
third movement of sonata cycle, an A-B-A form (A=minuet B=trio) in a moderate triple meter; often the third movement of the Classical multimovement cycle
: a lengthy, virtuosic solo passage that interrupts a concerto movement near its end - often improvised or improv-like
Sections of the Roman catholic Mass that remain the same from day to day throughout the Church year: include Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
reunites Europe, crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope in 900, wanted to recapture the glory of the Roman Empire, created schools for study of Latin writing and grammar, sought religious unification, standardization of liturgy by unifying both the text and melodies chant, enlisted help of Roman singers to teach 'correct' melodies, myth of divine transmission of chant w/ Pope Gregory (music notation originates)
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
rule of Charlemagne, where he sought to unify Europe and bring back style of Roman Empire, through music-uniting liturgy chant-notation is needed and develops to remember the 'correct' versions taught by Roman singers,
MOVEABLE TYPE PRINTING
press in the 1450s developed in Mainz, Germany by Johannes Gutenberg, Latin Bible first large project, leads to mass-production, greater availability(later important factor in the distribution of Reformation ideals), printing press technology quickly spreads throughout Europe and America, printing of polyphonic music begins in Venice
precipitated by centuries of mounting discontent over papal authority and abuses by every level of the clergy., led by Martin Luther's 95 theses in 1517, removal of intermediaries btwn worshiper and God, Translation of liturgy into the vernacular, , resulting upheaval leads to violent relgious wars: Italy, Spain, France, and southern Germany remain Catholic; England, norhter Germany, and most of Scandinavia embrace various forms of Protestantism
movement in the later 16th century to reform the Catholic Church from within in response to the Protestant Reformation also called Catholic Reformation
COUNCIL OF TRENT
gathering of bishops and theologians that meets intermittently over two decades,among other reforms, took up the matter of church music during Counter-Reformation and objected to the use of certain instruments in religoius services, to the practice of incorporating poular songs in Masses, to the secular spirit that had invaded sacred music, and to the generally irrevverent attitude of church musicians, claimed in polyphonic settings of the Mass, the sacred text was made unintelligible by the elaborate texture, favored pure vocal style
marks the passing of European society from a predominately religious orientation to a more secular one, and from an age of unquestioning faith and mysticism to one of reason and scientific inquiry, golden age of a cappella singing, music features a fuller, more consonant sound (with thirds and sixths) than medieval music, musicians employed in churches, cities and courts or in the trades of instrument building and music printing
inherits many Baroque traits but is adapted to Classical style and forms,Similarities to Baroque: Contrast between soloist(s) and orchestra, Three movements (fast, slow, fast), New features: Cadenza;Concerto form: a hybrid of ritornello and sonata form, Double exposition: orchestra plays first in tonic throughout, then the soloist with the orchestra, eventually modulating to the dominant (often the soloist introduces its own theme), Development and recapitulation as in regular sonata form, Piano and violin are the two most common instruments
contemporary musical style featuring the repetition of short melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation
MINUET AND TRIO FORM
An ABA for (A=minuet; B=trio) in a moderate triple meter; often the tird movement of the classical multimovement cycle
music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial programinstrumental music with no explicit non-musical reference - music that is only 'about itself' (e.g., most instrumental music of the Classical period)
"fixed idea"; term coined by Berlioz for a recurring musical idea that links different movements of a work
German for "total artwork"; a term coined by Richard Wagner to describe the synthesis of all the arts (music, poetry, drama, visual spectacle) in his late operas
a style of visual art and literature in Germany and Austria in the early twentieth century. THe term is sometimes also applied to music, especially composers of the Second VIennese School
"leading motive" or basic recurring theme., representing a person, object, or idea, commonly used in Wagner's operas
total abadonment of tonality (centering in a key), moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation, music without a tonic and the corresponding hierarchical relationships of pitches and chords
a vocal style in which the melody is spoken at approximate pitches rather than sung on exact pitches; developed by Arnold Schoenberg
compositional procedure of teh twentieth century based on the use of all twelve chromatic tones (in a tone row) without a central tone, or tonic, according to prescribed rules
extremely complex, totally controlled music in which the twelve-tone principle is extended to elements of music other than pitch
a contemporary style of music that employs the rich harmonic language and other elements of Romantic and post-Romantic composers
contemporary style combining lush harmonies of New Romanticism with high-energy rhythms of minimalism; John Adams is a major exponent
a French movement developed by visual artists who favored vague, blurry images intended to capture an "impression" of the subject. in music is characterized by exotic scales, unresolved issonances, parallel chords, rich orchestral tone color and free rhythm
a dance form featuring a staged presentation of group or solo dancing with music, costumes and scenery
SECOND VIENNESE SCHOOL
Name given to composer Arnold Schoenberg and his puils Alban Berg and Anton Webern; represents the first efforts in twelve-tone composition
a twentieth-century style that combined elements of Classical and Baroque music with modernist trends
Evidence of the existence of music in ancient Sumer, Babylonia, Egypt, and Greece, among others, Old Testament shows power of music for Jewish people (Iubel, Joshua and the walls of Jericho, David and the Psalms),However, only a few fragments of actual music survive from _____. Ancient Greece was an important source for musical ideas in the Middle Ages, many come down to us today: Word 'music' from Greek word 'mousike', Theory of music as the embodiment of the mathematical order of the universe (e.g., Pythagoras), Emotional power of music described in myths and in philosophical writings (e.g., Plato, Aristotle), Many (but not all) Greek writings translated into Latin in the last centuries of the Classical period
So-called Middle Ages (or Medieval period) marked by a daily struggle for survival - for majority, sacred and secular systems of protection are the only refuge, Secular hierarchy determined by feudalism, a system of extensive relationships between families and individuals, An important component of this was vassalage, whereby one would pledge allegiance to another in exchange for favor and/or protection, No diversity or freedom of religion during this time, virtually everyone is a practicing Catholic (Jewish communities an important but often persecuted exception), Sacred hierarchy organized around urban churches and rural monasteries
BAROQUE PERIOD (EARLY)
both an outgrowth of and a reaction to the Renaissance, Certain aspects of the Renaissance remain, Idealization of Classical models, Interest in nature and realism, Evolution towards mannerism (excessive style), particularly in southern and central Europe around 1600, Exaggerating features of the Renaissance style, Artificiality, Classical restraint (Renaissance) vs. exaggerated expression of emotion (____), Some see history as cyclical, alternating between classical balance and stylized emotion - is this view oversimplified?
BAROQUE PERIOD (LATE)
characterized by a general movement toward fixity: Large-scale genres (e.g., opera, concerto, oratorio, etc.), Expressive moods: idea of affect in Baroque art (i.e., a piece or movement concentrates on a single emotion), Rhythmic style: often based on fixed dance rhythms, featuring a constant motoric drive,"Terraced" contrasts within and between movements, Steady presence of basso continuo providing fixed instrumental support (similar to rhythm section in jazz), A progression toward fixity and stability also can be seen in society, 1550-1650: frequent struggles, often over religion, 1572, Paris: St. Bartholomew massacre of Huguenots (French Protestants), 1618-48, Germany: Thirty Years' War (Protestants vs. Catholics), 1642-60, England: Civil War, then Commonwealth (religious and class war), The Americas: conquests and skirmishes in the colonies. - 1650-1750: Increasing stability, absolute monarchies, France: Louis XIV, the "Sun King" (reigned 1643-1715), Russia: Peter the Great (1689-1725)
was a movement in 18th cent., thought dedicated to the elevation of general education and welfare - French philosophers such as Voltaire and Rousseau were important figures, Democratic approach to knowledge, education, opinions, Everyone is equal in society (in principle). - How do absolute monarchs fit in?, World can be rational: Science and reasoning should explain the universe, Where does the church fit in?, Growth of modern newspaper (source for objective information and commentary), Encyclopedia, by Denis Diderot (1751-72), 72,000 articles, including many on musical topics Brings all knowledge together into one place
sweeps Europe in the later 18th century, based on the Enlightenment, the galant style, and opera trends, Despite the Italian origin of the style, the three greatest composers all were German, and all spent parts of their career in Vienna, Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-91), Ludwig van Beethoven (1772-1828), Importance of Vienna, Political: seat of the surviving Holy Roman Empire and capital of Austria, Czech lands, and Hungary, European trendsetter for lifestyle, culture, food, music, Other important cities of ______: London, Paris, major Italian cities
Beethoven prefigures many aspects of the Romantic approach: - Master of all musical forms, genres; - But driven by intense passions, which break loose from received forms; - Dramatic nature of compositions encourages narrative approaches to analysis (e.g., "Fate" motive of the Fifth Symphony). • Emphasis on passion, emotion, inner moods, intuitions: - New discovery of nature; - New fascination with the supernatural; - New interest in "Folk" culture (e.g., Grimm's Fairy Tales, 1823-36); - New emphasis on Nationalism (ethnic, political pride). • Leads to new respect for artists, music: - The artist is glorified as a "divine creative spirit" - new idea that art should represent an artist's feelings, emotions; - Music is sanctified as the art that most closely expresses the inexpressible soul; - In particular, instrumental music, unencumbered by the shaping power of the text, is exalted (Schopenhauer).
ethnic, political pride: is an important cultural impulse in the 19th century: - Revolutionary ferment throughout Europe, which redefines national identities (e.g., Bohemian vs. Austro-Hungarian); - Fascination with folk culture, poetry, music; - Fascination across national borders - exoticism in fashion and art (high point of European colonialism). • Nationalism in music: - Expression of pride in, or deep feelings for, one's home nation, through the use of musical genres, styles, or sounds that specifically evoke that nation (in a real or imagined way); - Growth of distinctive national "schools" of music (i.e., affinities in style), particularly in marginalized countries (Eastern Europe, Russia, Spain).
an outgrowth of, and reaction to, the Enlightenment: - Begins with literary movement in the 1770s (e.g., Goethe) - gradually spreads to art and music; - Artists strive to relate the different arts and borrow techniques; - In music, the ______ era begins around 1820 (perhaps as early as 1800 in some respects);
Basic idea: uncompromising idealism of modernism is out of date, no longer valid. • society of this is overwhelmingly eclectic: - No style is inherently better than any other; - Styles can be combined at will (including pop and art); - Includes important multicultural component. • Important difference from previous centuries, in which common ideas about art and style were shared by most
is the act of taking a portion one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a different sound recording of a song
Johannes Gutenberg (1400?-1468) masters movable type printing press in the 1450s in Mainz, Germany: - Latin Bible his first large project ("Gutenberg Bible"); - Leads to mass-production, greater availability (later an important factor in the distribution of Reformation ideals). • Printing press technology quickly spreads throughout Europe and to the Americas - major printing centers emerge (Venice, Rome, Paris, London, Antwerp). • Printing of polyphonic music begins in 1501 (Ottaviano Petrucci, Venice): - Multiple-impression method (first the staff, then notes, then text); - First publication is secular (Harmonicae Musices Odhecaton, mostly chansons); second is a book of Josquin masses.
nails his 95 theses on the door of Wittenberg Church in 1517 - includes declarations of faith and proposals for reform: - Removal of intermediaries between worshipper and God (e.g., saints, icons, indulgences, etc.); - Translation of liturgy into the vernacular (popular element).
Baroque also a period of these (e.g., Louis XIV in France, Peter the Great in Russia).End of the 18th Century: Politics • The Enlightenment provokes new attitudes in Europe and America: • Absolute monarchy persists in some places, but with an Enlightened flavor: - Frederick the Great of Prussia (ruled 1740-86); - Catherine the Great of Russia (ruled 1762-96); - Maria Theresa of Austria (1717-80) and her son Emperor Joseph II (ruled 1765-90); • Many peoples begin to press for democracy, with varying success: - England: democratic element, but still a monarchy; - American Revolution (1776-83): takes democracy to a new level: • Decl. of Independence (1776), Constitution (1787-89); • Abolition of monarchy and aristocratic divine right; • Government and society based upon Enlightenment principles.
takes over after French Revolution, the popular general of the French army, crowns himself emperor in 1804: - Conquers most of Europe ; - Introduces Enlightenment-like reforms throughout Europe (metric system, educational reforms); - Defeated at Waterloo in 1815; aristocracy restored.
this movement began in poetry in the 1860s (Paul-Marie Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé) - later came to the visual arts; - Emphasis on allusion, metaphor, imagery; - Similar to Impressionism but also different: not a play of light, but of symbols, conveying hidden realities to those in the know; - Very rich in language, but the meaning is often hard to grasp. (Debussy, Ravel): allusion, metaphor, imagery
Igor Stravinsky hired by Serge Diaghilev's _______ in 1907: - this type of dance was a popular vehicle for experimentation in music (picturesque, evocative); they were a phenomenal success in Paris from 1909 onward - Russian art and music, exoticism, incorporation of modern arts (cubism, abstraction, etc.). Stravisky had a series of masterpieces for these in the early 1910s, including Petrushka and The Rite of Spring.
In music involves many aspects, including: - Belief in the staleness of outdated techniques, codes (e.g., clichéd harmonic and cadential progressions) and corresponding desire to establish new ones; - Belief in continual progress, evolution of music; - Historicism: interest in understanding past tradition and their place in it. • The prototypical __________ in music is Arnold Schoenberg:
WORLD WAR I
after this catastrophe, Stravinsky's style changes dramatically. • Interest in forms, styles, instruments, composers from the 18th century (neo-classicism - "back to Bach"). • Striking new relationship with the past and tradition - rather than a straight line of progress (a la Schoenberg), past traditions and practices are always present and can be merged with modern styles
AMERICAN MAVERICK TRADITION
Many composers followed European traditions, with its well-established forms and techniques. • Others took pride from striking out in new directions, an analogy to the settlers' Frontier Mentality. • Charles Ives (1874-1954): - Born and raised in Connecticut (pure Yankee) - New England musical influence: bands, parlor songs, hymns; - His father was a band-leader and a highly original musician (singing in different keys at the same time, dissonance); - Educated at Yale, then became an insurance broker - not a full-time musician, did this so that he wouldnt have to follow the classical rules he learned in music, instead did it for recreation instead of profession, helped start a "dont care about tradition" tradition, using techniques like his fists to create different sounds; - Father figure for American 20th-century music. • Ex.: Ives, Three Places in New England, "Putnam's Camp" (1903-11; revised 1929): - Second of three movements of a symphonic work; - Program: boy at a 4th of July picnic - he falls asleep, dreams, wakes up; - Style: dreamy - Lots of dissonance, polytonality (music in more than one key at the same time); - Distinctly American sound(why?).
WORLD WAR II
Avant-garde: literally, "advance guard" - saw themselves as leaders of completely new ideas about art, entirely free of past traditions and market forces ("art for art's sake"). • Like modernists, belief that art and society are in crisis. • Many of the most radical developments after _____ germinate in the United States. • Confront basic questions of what constitutes music and how it should be organized. • Some of the most important movements include: - Total serialism (Boulez, Babbitt); - Chance music (Cage); - Electronic music (Varèse, Stockhausen).
AESTHETIC OF SILENCE
John Cage's interest in Zen philosophy leads to this notion: lack of music can fill time as meaningfully as music
indeterminacy as an element in music composition and/or performance, (exp. using silence and letting whatever everyday sounds happen be the music)
Wagner used this a lot, stretching the very limits of the major-minor tonal system, obscures tonality (destroying tonal system from within?)
used by Wagner in his operas, constant flow to the music and story, endless melody
BLENDING OF ART AND POPULAR INFLUENCES
george gershwin with the modern broadway musical (studied classical piano then popular song), Aaron Copeland -Initially radical, modernist style of composition; - Later, interested in creating a distinctively American art music style, reaching out to everyone (jazz, folk, popular elements, evocation of "wide open spaces"); - Wrote a number of film scores
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