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Urinary Study Guide
Terms in this set (43)
List the five main functions of the kidneys
1. regulate water volume and solute concentrate
2. longterm acid-base balance
3. removal of metabolic waste, toxins, drugs
4. activation of vitamin D
5. endocrine functions
renin- reg. of BP
erythropoietin- reg. of RBC production
**overall filter and remove excess water and waste, keep blood balanced
Where are the kidneys located? What does "retroperitoneal" mean?
retroperitoneal- behind peritoneum (peritoneal cavity)
At level of thoracic vertebrae 12 to lumbar vertebrae 5
adrenal glands sit on top of kidneys
Gross anatomy of the kidney
for the exam know the flow of urine from the renal pyramid to the ureter and then know that it goes from ureter to bladder to urethra
Fibrous capsule- protective
Renal cortex- superficial region
renal medulla- renal pyramids and columns
Ureters Know the function Know the 3 layer? What type of tissue?
Urinary bladder Know the function
muscular sac for temporary storage of urine
What are the layers? What type of tissue?
mucosa- transitional epithelium
muscularis- 3 layers of smooth muscle
What is the trigone?
area between the uremic orifices and bladder neck
prone to infection, especially in females
muscular tube draining urinary bladder
Internal urethral sphincter
smooth muscle - involuntary
External urethral sphincter Longer in males than females - why?
skeletal muscle - voluntary
females- only carry urine 3-4cm
males- carry urine and semen 20cm
What is the function of the internal and external urethral sphincters?
What are the three events that lead to urination (micturition)?
1) contraction of smooth muscle by ANS
2) opening of internal urethral sphincter by parasympathetic ANS
3) opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system
What is the structural and functional unit of the kidney and the only structure that is involved in the formation of urine?
There are two types of nephrons. Name them. Which one are there more of? Which one is more important in forming concentrated urine? Where are nephrons located?
85% of all nephrons
almost entirely in cortex
long nephron loops dip into medulla
important in production of concentrated urine
What are the two main parts of a nephron?
Glomerulua- high pressure, highly porus- allows filtrate formation
Renal tubule- bowman's capsule, PCT, loop of hence, DCT, collecting duct
What are the subcomponents of the renal corpuscle?
glomerulus and Bowmans capsule
What about this particular capillary bed makes the blood pressure so high here? How is this capillary bed different from others?
chief force pushing out water, solutes, out of blood
high bc efferent arteriole is high resistance vessel with diameter smaller than afferent arteriole
What is the net filtration pressure?
the total pressure that promotes filtration
What three pressures contribute to NFP and how?
HPgc- glomerular BP 55mmHG
OPgc- pulls fluid back in 30 mmHG
HPcs hydrostatic pressure 15 mmHG
What is the glomerular filtration rate?
volume of filtrate formed per minute by both kidneys
normal 120-125 ml/min
What three factors contribute to it?
total SA available for filtration
filtration membrane permeability
How can it be regulated (what are the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms and what do they respond to?)
controlled via glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPgc)
contraction of afferent arteriole (intrinsic)
macula densa (intrinsic)
sympathetic ANS (extrinsic)
What is the myogenic mechanism? What cells mediate this process?
increased BP- contraction of afferent arterioles-> redistrict BF into glomerulus (protects glomeruli from damaging high BP
decreased BP- dilation of afferent arterioles
What does the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism do at each step? How does it affect urine output?
if BP or BV too low...
increased angiotensin II in lungs -> constrict BP -> increase BP systemically and constricting afferent arterioles-> decrease GFR
also stimulate aldosterone- reabsorb more Na- water flows passively
What are the three components of the filtration membrane?
fenestrated endothelial cell
glomerular basement membrne
podocyte with "slit diaphragms"
What is the most important pressure in creating filtrate?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure HPgc
What is filtrate? Where is it located?
fluid filtered from blood
contained in parietal layer of capsule
What type of capillaries are in the glomerulus?
afferent and efferent arterioles
What are the sub compartments of the renal tubule?
proximal convoluted tubule
nephron (loop of henle)
distal convoluted tubule
What cells are found in each region of the renal tubule?
PCT- simple cuboidal cells w/ microvilli and many mitochondria
Nephron loop- descending: simile squamous epithelial, ascending: simple cuboidal to columnar cells
DCT- simple cuboidal, little to no microvilli
Where does MOST reabsorption occur? What cell type is here and what structural components do these cells have that facilitate their role in absorption and secretion?
PCT cuboidal epithelial cells have a brush border to increase SA on apical side
Which part of the nephron loop is permeable to water? To solutes?
ascending limb- solutes
Which parts of the nephron respond to hormones?
DCT and collecting duct
ADH-> increase H2O reabsorption by principal cells
Aldosterone-> increase NA+ by principal cells, also increase H2O
What types of cells are found in the collecting duct? What do the cells here do? Which hormones affect these cells and how does each one affect water reabsorption?
Both simple and cuboidal epithelium
Principal cells: few, short microvilli
reabsorb water and Na+
Intercalated cells: many microvilli and reabsorb H+
What substances move across each portion of the renal tubule and collecting duct?
K+, H+, NA4+, urea
In which part(s) of the nephron do you find
wall of capillaries and renal tubule
wall of capillaries and renal tubule
What are the three types of capillary beds in the kidney? Where is each one found?
glomerular bed (nestled inside a cup-like sac located at the end of each nephron)
peritubular bed (surround the cortical parts of the proximal and distal tubules)
vasa recta (go into the medulla to approach the loop of Henle)
What is the juxtaglomerular complex? What does it do? What are the sub-components?
structure in kidney next to glomerulus, regulates function of each nephron
What cells have chemoreceptors to sense the NaCl content of filtrate?
macula dense cells- chemoreceptors
What cells have mechanoreceptors that sense blood pressure in the afferent arteriole and produce Renin? What is the stimulus for Renin production?
Juxtaglomerular cells- mechanoreceptors
renin- producing granular cells
What is the pH of urine?
slightly acidic, pH of 6
What is the main component of urine?
95% water, 5% solutes
What makes up the solutes of urine?
urea (from amino acid breakdown)- largest solute
uric acid (from nucleic acid metabolism)
creatine (metabolite of creatine phosphate)
Recommended textbook explanations
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Seeley's Principles of Anatomy and Physiology
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