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Chapter 1- The human body Orientation

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Where is the Thoracic cavity located?
Upper Chest
Where is the Cranial cavity located?
head
Where is the abdominal cavity located?
directly under diaphram
Where is the vertebral cavity located?
along the neck and spine
Where is the umbilical region?
middle of stomach (belly button)
Where is the right hypochondriac region?
upper right of subject
Where is the hypogastric region?
below belly button above gential
Where is the epigastric region?
upper middle region
where is the right iliac region?
lower right region
Directly causes mechanical motion
muscular system
responds to enviromental changes by transmitting electrical impulses
nervous system
provides support and levers for muscles to work on
skeletal
protects underlying organs from mechanical damage and synthesizes vitaimin D
integumentary
contraols the body with chemical molecules called hormones
endocrine
delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
cardiovascular
produces antibodies that neutralize foreign substances
immune
removes and filters excess fluid from tissues
lymphatic
blood glucose levels
negitive feedback
blood pressure
negitive feedback
blood clotting
positive feedback
delivering a baby
postive feedback
arteries, veins, heart
cardiovascular system
trachea, bronchi, alveoli
respiratory system
adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary
endorine system
esophagus, large intestine, rectum
digestive system
kidneys, bladder, ureters
urniary system
stomach
abdominopelvic caivty
heart
thoraic cavity
uterus
abdominopelvic cavity
brain
cranial cavity
lungs
thoraic cavity
knee
patellar region
head
cephalic region
arm
brachial region
buttock
glutel region
chest
thoracic region
superior
toward the head end or upper part of structure
inferior
away from the head or toward a lower part of body
ventral (anterior)
toward the front of the body
dorsal(posterior)
toward the back of the body
medial
toward or the midline of the body
lateral
away from the midline of the body
imtermidate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
proximal
closter to the origin of the body part
distal
farther away from the origin of the body part
superfical
toward or at the body's surface
deep (internal)
away from the surface
the bridge of the nose is _______ to the left eye
medial
the upper arm is ________ to the forearm
proximal
the heart is ______ to the stomach
superior
the fingers are_______ to the wrist
distal
the stomach is ______ to the spine
anterior
Nose
nasal region
Mouth
oral region
Neck
cervical region
Forehead
Frontal region
eye
orbital region
cheek
buccal region
chin
mental region
point of shoulder
acromical region
breastbone
sternal region
arm pit
axillary region
chest
thoraic region
breast
mammary region
abdomin
abdonial region
arm
brachial region
front of elbow
antecubital region
forearm
antebrachial region
pelvis
pelvic region
wrist
carpal region
thumb
pollex region
Palm
palmar region
fingers and toes
digital region
belly button
umbilical region
Genital
pubic region
hip
coxal region
groin
inguinal region
front of knee
patellar region
leg (shin)
crural region
side of leg
fibular region
thigh
femoral region
ankle
tarsal region
great toe
hallux region
foot
pedal region
ear
otic region
back of head
occipital region
hand
manus region
spine
vertrabral region
shoulder blade
scapular region
back
dorsal
back of elbow
olecranal region
loin
lumbar region
between hips
sacral region
buttock
gluteal region
between anus and genitals
perinal region
back of knee
popliteal region
calf
sural region
heel
calcaneal region
sole of foot
planter region
parietal pericardium
outside layer/membrane
visceral pericardium
inside layer
right upper quandrant
liver, gallbladder, right kidney, pancreas, some intestines
left upper
stomach, spleen, left kidney, pancreas some intestines
right lower
appendix, right utreter, right ovary and fallopian tube
left lower
colon, left ureter, left ovary and fallopian tube
Liver & gallbladder
right hypochodriac
stomach
left hypochonriac
colon
right lumbar
small intestine
umbilical region
appendix
right iliac region
bladder
hypogastric region
Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus.
Ture
Imaging is useful in discovering structed blood supplies in organs and tissues
True
The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body.
True
The elbow is proximal to the shoulder
False
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum
false
A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction.
true
The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach.
false
Lungs carry out an excretory function
true
Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception through old age
false
A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function.
true
It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it
true
Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body chemistry in balance.
true
Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components.
true
The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region
true
Histology would be best defined as a study of ________.
tissues
The study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy but as a whole you would say it is __________ anatomy.
Gross
An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream would be best described as an example of ________.
excretion of metabolic waste
Average body temperature is ________ degrees centigrade
37
If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat
would be the ________.
control center
What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback
to maintain homeostasis
What is the specific name for the hip region
coxal
An oblique cut is one that is cut ________.
diagonally between the vertical and horizontal
The heart lies in the ________ cavity
pericardial
The cavities housing the eyes are called __________ cavities
orbital
A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be a(n) ________.
organ
________ cavities are spaces within joints
synovail
Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life?
decay
Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?
dorsal
The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of
body weight, is ________
water
What is the posterior side of the patella called
popliteal
Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms
Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body
The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except ________.
palms turned posteriorly
A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ________
enhancement of labor contractions
Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane
any sagittal plane except the median
Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region?
intestines
The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane ________.
lining the thoracic cavity
Which one of the following systems responds to environmental stimuli
nervous
Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched.
Cytology: study of the structures in a particular region
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains ________.
a relatively stable internal environment, within limits
In which cavities are the lungs located
pleural, ventral, and thoracic
Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes
Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls
of the heart. (it is the other way around)
Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex:
1. molecules 2. atoms 3. tissues
4. cells 5. organ
2,4,1,3,5- atoms, cells, molecules, tissues, organ
Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain
MRI
Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity
thoracic cavity
In which abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located
Left upper
Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance
It is considered the cause of most diseases
Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following?
gross, regional, systemic, and surface
The term pollex refers to the ________.
thumb
The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following
brain (cranial)
Select the most correct statement
The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system
One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to ________.
sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
Which of the following are survival needs of the body
nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
The anatomical position is used ________.
as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body
What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right, called
sagittal
What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called?
frontal
Which body cavity protects the nervous system
dorsal
Which of the following describes the operation of the heart and blood vessels
cardiovascular anatomy
Similar cells that have a common function are called
tissues
What does the "principle of complementarity of structures and function" mean?
What a structure can do depends on its specific form, or "structure determines
function."
The term that describes the back of the elbow is ________.
olecranal
The term that describes the heel region is ________.
calcaneal
The elbow is ________ to the wrist
proximal
The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the inner ear.
middle ear
________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organic systems
physiology
What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed
homostatsis
Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum?
pelvic
What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called
visceral
________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function
renal
What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?
metabolism
What is the function of the serous membranes
They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls
Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body
The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away
from the midline
What does gross anatomy study?
Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye
Can lungs carry out excretory functions? Explain your answer
Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete.
The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, which causes a loss of oxygen. Comment on this statement
The statement is backwardsthe higher we go, the less atmospheric pressure, therefore
less oxygen
Why is anatomical terminology necessary
Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion
when describing the location of body parts
The five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________.
orbital
The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________.
responsiveness or irritability
What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body
water
Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be continued at life-sustaining rates?
If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body
temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape,
resulting in loss of function
What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway called?
afferent
What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex
negitive
Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range?
Positive
Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure
resipirtory
Crainal Cavity
brain and pituitary gland
spinal cavity
spinal cord
pleural cavities
one lung in each
pericardial cavity
heart
mediastinal space
thymus gland, trachea, espohagus, bronchi, ends of the vencavae, beginning of the aorta
adbominal cavity
stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, most of the small and large intestines, kidneys
pelvic cavity
urinary bladder, sex organs, part of the large intestine, including the cecum, appendix, rectum
integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, duct glands
skeletal system
bones, joints, cartilage, connective tissue
muscular system
skeletal, smooth, cardiac muscles
nervous system
brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
digestive system
mouth, pharynx,, esophugus, stomach, intestines, gallbladder and pancreas
circulatory system
heart, blood vessels, blood, lymphatic tissues
respiratory system
lungs, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea
urniary system
kidnesy ureter, bladder, uretha
reproductive systems
sex organs
endocrine system
ductless glands
immue system
white blood cells, antibodies