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Chapter 23 Quiz and Review
Terms in this set (69)
The esophagus is a part of the _______, while the pancreas is considered a(n) _______ when it comes to the digestive system.
a)alimentary canal; accessory digestive organ
b)stomach; propulsion organ
c)accessory organs; alimentary canal component
d)pharynx; mechanical digestive organ
The majority of absorption occurs in the _______.
The majority of _________ occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine.
Stimuli that regulate gastrointestinal tract activity are generated by _________.
b)chemoreceptors in the gut
c)the enteric nerve plexus
d)all of the above
Choose the answer that lists the four layers of the wall of the alimentary canal in the appropriate order from innermost to outermost.
a)Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
b)Submucosa, mucosa, serosa, muscularis externa
c)Serosa, mucosa, muscularis externa, submucosa
d)Muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa, mucosa
In general, parasympathetic inputs to the gut are _________, while sympathetic inputs are _________.
b)rapid; long lasting
Chemical digestion is initiated in the _________.
Why does your mouth suddenly "go dry" when you are about to deliver a presentation to a large crowd?
a)Parasympathetic activity stimulates salivation.
b)Parasympathetic activity inhibits salivation.
c)Sympathetic activity stimulates salivation.
d)Sympathetic activity inhibits salivation.
Most teeth are primarily composed of _________.
What is a possible side effect of weakening of the cardiac sphincter?
a)Acid reflux into the esophagus
b)Uncontrollable bowel movements
d)Rapid overfilling of the stomach
_______ involves over 22 muscle groups and includes the buccal phase and the pharyngeal-esophageal phase.
The stomach is able to expand nearly 80 times its empty volume partly due to _______ in its walls.
A patient with a low RBC count receives vitamin B12 injections every 2 weeks. Why?
a)This patient is training for a triathlon.
b)This patient is anemic and has low iron.
c)Parietal cells in this patient's stomach have ceased producing intrinsic factor.
d)This patient's parietal cells have stopped secreting HCl.
Digestion of which of the following might be inhibited if a patient chronically consumes an antacid?
When your stomach growls in response to an ad on TV for food, the _________ phase of gastric secretion is initiated.
Meals high in protein ______ gastrin secretion from the gastric glands.
c)have no effect upon
The ______ cells are responsible for HCl production.
A meal high in fat would _______.
a)stimulate rapid gastric emptying
b)stimulate the intensity of the stomach's peristaltic waves
c)increase gastrin secretion
d)inhibit gastric emptying
Why is the small intestine well adapted for nutrient absorption?
a)Acid secretions from the stomach are neutralized in the duodenum.
b)CCK is released from the duodenum to promote liver and pancreatic secretion.
c)Large surface area due to the presence of the plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli.
d)The small intestine is very long and thin.
Which cells produce CCK in the intestine?
a)Simple columnar cells
_______ macrophages are located in the liver.
The gallbladder _______ bile by _______ water and ions.
b)stores; preventing absorption of
______ stimulates the gallbladder to contract.
You would expect blood levels of _______ to be highest when the pH of stomach chyme entering the duodenum is at its lowest.
Cirrhosis of the liver would most severely impact digestion of _______.
In terms of gastrointestinal function, the large intestine's greatest contribution is:
a)exposing the chyme to the rich assortment of pancreatic enzymes through the process of segmentation.
b)absorption of all primary nutrients.
c)absorption of water.
d)regulation of gastric motility.
Which of the following enzymes breaks down lipids?
d)None of the above
Which of the following is a function of mesenteries?
a.Mesenteries stabilize the organs of the abdominal cavity.
b.Mesenteries filter nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract.
c.Mesenteries prevent the intestines from becoming tangled with changes in body position.
d.Both A and C are correct.
What is occurring when the soft palate and larynx elevate and the glottis closes?
The four major layers of the GI tract are ______.
a.mucosa, digestive epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosa
b.mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
c.submucosa, submucosal plexus, myenteric plexus, and serosa
d.none of the above
The major histological differences between the large intestine and small intestine are that the large intestine ______.
a.lacks villi, has abundant goblet cells, and has deeper intestinal glands
b.has longer villi, more microvilli, and plicae
c.has a larger nutrient absorptive surface
d.produces more enzymes and hormones
How do most chylomicrons enter the lymphatic system?
a.through the left and right subclavian veins
c.through the thoracic duct
d.through the hepatic portal system
Where in the human body will chemical digestion begin?
a.in the oral cavity
b.in the esophagus
c.in the stomach
d.none of the above
In which region(s) of the digestive tract does mechanical processing occur?
a.in the mouth, by teeth and the tongue
b.in the stomach, by churning
c.in the small intestine, by peristalsis
d.both A and B
Where are the motor neurons that control smooth muscle contraction and glandular secretions of the GI tract located?
a.in the hypothalamus
b.in the submucosal plexus
c.in the myenteric plexusd.in the muscularis mucosa
Which of the enzymes below would digest a particular carbohydrate into glucose and fructose?
The liver has more than 200 critical functions. Which of the following is NOT a liver function?
a.carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism
b.vitamin and mineral storage
c.secretion of CCK, storage and concentration of bile
d.removal of antibodies, circulating hormones, and toxins
How do the roles of pepsinogen and HCI interact in the stomach?
a.They both digest chyme.
b.HCI is necessary to prevent pepsinogen from digesting proteins.
c.They both kill microorganisms.
d.HCI is necessary for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin.
What effect(s) does the secretion of CCK have on a fatty meal's entrance to the duodenum?
a.speeds up gastric emptying
b.reduces rate and force of gastric contractions
c.inhibits secretion of gastric acids and enzymes, slowing gastric emptying
d.increases secretion of gastrin and decreases bile secretion
What effect does secretion of secretin by enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum have on the pancreas?
a.It stimulates the secretion of glucagon.
b.It stimulates production of pancreatic buffers that protect the duodenum.
c.It stimulates the secretion of insulin.
d.It promotes production and secretion of pancreatic enzymes.
Why is diarrhea potentially life threatening, but constipation is not?
a.Wastes not eliminated as feces will be eliminated through urine.
b.Constipation affects only gastric motility.
c.Constipation causes edema.
d.Diarrhea causes rapid water and electrolyte loss.
Peritonitis may interfere with the function of digestive organs because it is a(n) ______.
a.inflammation of the muscularis mucosa
b.programmed cell death of enterocytes
c.inflammation of the peritoneum
d.swelling of the visceral peritoneum
Which disorder increases the rate at which fluids move into the peritoneal cavity? What condition results from excess fluids in the peritoneal cavity?
a.liver disease; ascites
b.gastric ulcers; internal bleeding
Which of the following statements correctly states the absorption of an ion/vitamin?
a.Ca2+absorption is inhibited by calcitriol.
b.Vitamin B12 absorption occurs when it binds to extrinsic factor.
c.Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed from micelles along with dietary lipids.
d.Aldosterone is a hormone that stimulates the absorption of K+.
Peristalsis is part of which digestive process?
All of the following are part of the alimentary canal EXCEPT the __________ .
Simple columnar epithelium is found in which histological layer of the alimentary canal?
Which histological layer of the alimentary canal is also known as the visceral peritoneum?
The membrane that lines the body wall of the abdominal cavity is the __________ .
Excessive acidity in the stomach causes a(n) _________ in _______ secretion.
The esophageal hiatus is found on this organ.
Saliva is composed mainly of__________ .
Which of the following phases of gastric secretion is a conditioned reflex?
d.All three phases above are conditioned reflexes.
The gastric cells that secrete pepsinogen are the __________ .
a.mucous neck cells
Most of the digestive enzymes found in the small intestine are secreted by this accessory organ.
Which of the following is NOT an enzyme produced by the pancreas?
This substance secreted by the pancreas helps neutralize chyme.
This hormone triggers the release of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice.
This hormone relaxes the hepatopancreatic sphincter.
Which of the following is NOT part of the large intestine?
The pocketlike sacs of the large intestine are called __________ .
The functions of the large intestine include all of the following EXCEPT __________ .
a.elimination of waste
b.absorption of water and electrolytes
c.absorption of nutrients
d.absorption of vitamins produced by bacteria
Which of the following reflexes are we able to voluntarily control?
Amylase allows us to digest __________ .
d.all of these
Which specific process is mostly used to "absorb" water from the intestine?
Which of the following is NOT an enzyme?
Where does chemical digestion of lipids begin?
Micelles are formed during the absorption of which nutrient?
Intrinsic factor is produced in the stomach and is necessary for the absorption of __________ .
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