Comprised of four major systems explored by environmental studies and earth science. The Geosphere is the Earth's core, mantle, and crust. The Atmosphere is the air around the Earth, which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere. The Hydrosphere -is all the water contained on Earth, whether in solid, liquid or gaseous form (e.g. ice, oceans, clouds, etc.). The Biosphere - life on Earth, including plants, animals, insects, etc. Passed by Congress in 1973, this act made the US one of the first countries to afford legal protections to a full range of living things, including birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees. When present in the atmosphere, these gases absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Certain of these, reported under the Kyoto Protocol, that result from human activities include: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, SF6, NF3, PFCs, and HFCs. The IPCC Assessment Reports periodically update the gases that parties to the Kyoto Protocol must report upon. Coined by John Elkington of SustainAbility, in 1994-5, this term refers to the practice of focusing, and accounting for, sustainability impacts on environment, society and the economy. Sometimes it is described as "economic prosperity, environmental quality, and social equity," or as "people, planet, profit" (3Ps).