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All chemical reactions occurring in microbes.


Synthetic metabolism, forms new chemical bonds.


Degradative metabolism, breaks chemical bonds.


Requires energy.


Releases surplus of energy.


Biological catalyst. Reduces activation energy so reactions can occur at temps compatible with life.

Active sites

Areas where substrates attach.

Lock-and-key mechanism

Fit between enzyme ad substrate.

Allosteric sites

Areas where molecules other than substrates attach.

Simple enzymes

Proteins with catalytic activity.

Conjugated enzyme

Inactive protein plus cofactor.


Non protein that is bound to a protein and required for protein's biological activity.

Competitive inhibitors

Chemicals that bind to active sites.

Noncompetitive inhibitors

Chemicals that bind to allosteric sites or cofactors.

Metabolic pathway

Series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.


Secreted into environment.


Function within microbe.

Constitutive enzymes

Produced at constant rate at all times.

Inducible enzymes

Produced only when the substrate is present.

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