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Respiratory for pathology 4
Terms in this set (79)
Organs in Upper Respiratory Tract
Organs in Lower Respiratory Tract
Structures of Conducting Portion of Respiratory System
Function of Conducting Portion of Respiratory System
Structures of Respiratory Portion of Respiratory System
Function of Respiratory Portion of Respiratory System
What are the characteristics of gas exchange?
Defenses for Respiratory System
-Air is filtered, warmed, and humidified
-Secretory Ab and Lymphoid Cells
Determinants of Respiratory Disease
-Disease of one lung compartment affects others
-Caused by inhalation of materials
-Open to environment
-Lost pulmonary membrane is not recoverable
-Heart and Lungs are functional unit
Symptoms of Pulmonary Disease
Differences between Acute and Chronic Cough
-Acute: 2-3 weeks
-Chronic: 3-7 weeks
How does cyanosis work?
-O2 not getting to alveoli
-Alveoli not working properly
-Problem w/ hemoglobin
Characteristics of Common Cold
-Typically triggered by virus
-Virus has targeted cells in sinus and will secrete proteins which trigger an inflammatory response
-Antibiotics are usually not needed unless a bacterial infection comes too
Characteristics of Adenoid Hypertrophy
-Enlargement of adenoid from
--Scarring from chronic inflammation
--Hyperplasia (reversible, sometimes not fully)
Characteristics of Sinusitis
-Inflammation of sinuses
-From acute inflammation
-Caused by infections (bacterial/viral),
-Caused by Aseptic (cold damp climate, allergies, air pollution, smoking)
-Causes headache, difficulty breathing
-Antibiotics not usually necessary
Characteristics of Nasal Polyps
-Caused by allergies
-Polyps = benign tumors
--Outgrowth of epithelial lining
-Can obstruct air exchange
Characteristics of Croup
-Caused by viral infection
-Can be w/ or w/o mucus
-Difficulty swallowing because esophagus is side by side
-Difficulty breathing because trachea is obstructed
Why are cervical fractures a concern regarding respiration?
-Damage to the spinal cord means intercoastal muscles or diaphragm could be paralyzed
-Nearness to trachea and esophagus
Why are fractured a concern regarding respiration?
-Immense pain is caused since lung pleura is being stretched
-Patient's breathing patterns are changed because they do not want pain increase
Why is a rupture spleen a concern regarding respiration?
-Can trigger inflammatory response
-Expands and presses up on diaphragm causing problems w/ breathing (no downward negative pressure)
How does laughing cause foreign body obstruction?
Since swallowing is a specific physiologic processes, laughing can cause the process to work incorrectly
How does alcohol cause foreign body obstruction?
Changes a person's ability to rationalize how large of food they are able to consume
How do inhalants cause foreign body obstruction?
Inhalants (rubber cement, Freon, etc.) directly impact the CNS causing euphoria. A person will use a plastic back over their head which could cause suffocation
What are types of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases?
-Chronic Asthmatic Bronchitis
What are the types of triggers for asthma?
What are some characteristics of asthma?
-Shortness of breath w/ or w/o wheezing
-Reversible narrowing of airway
-Reduced efficiency of gas exchange
What is a general rule for asthma reoccurance?
Once an asthma airway path is discovered, it will always bronchoconstrict when trigger is present. The body will want to take that pathway more often.
What are some characteristics of chronic asthma?
-Smooth muscle hypertrophy
What is present in chronic asthma?
-Respiratory Mucus Accumulation
-Smooth muscle cell proliferation
-Increased fibroblastic activity
What is the pathogenesis of chronic asthma?
What are the factors to airway obstruction in chronic asthma?
-Excessive thickened mucus
-Edema of respiratory mucosa
How does an edema of respiratory mucosa cause an obstruction?
Pushes respiratory epithelium into lumen, which leads to decreased lumen diameter and increased resistance to airflow
When will chronic asthma not be reverisble?
When fibrosis is present
What are the categories of bronchitis?
How is chronic bronchitis defined?
Chronic cough that produced sputum for 3 consecutive months 2 years in a row
Characteristics of Chronic Bronchitis
-Increased mucus production
-Increased size and number of mucous glands
-Smooth Muscle Proliferation
What can bronchitis lead to?
How does bronchiectasis work?
Dilation of small bronchi is due to destruction of smooth muscle and elastic tissue from enzymes produced during chronic inflammation.
How does Emphysema work?
Dilation of alveoli is due to destruction of supporting fivers of alveoli from enzymes produced during chronic inflammation
How are the alveoli effected with emphysema?
Alveoli are still functioning however due to increase volume, pressure is decreased and air may not be moving
Characteristics of Emphysema
-Prone to lung infections
-Right side heart failure
-Increased anterior to posterior chest diameter
-Breathless on exertion
-Chronic Cough (may be present
How does emphysema cause lung infections?
Bacteria is not moving, so it could breed more bacteria
How does emphysema cause right side heart failure?
Primary pathology of lung causes heart failure because respiratory and circulation are related
How does emphysema cause pneumothorax?
Alveoli can be so pillowly that it can cause minute tears in pleura
How does emphysema cause increased anterior to posterior chest diameter?
Ribcage is pushed on which causes shift of position of ribcage; pectorus cartinoum (pigeon chest)
How does emphysema cause breathless on exertion?
Gas exchange isn't happening therefore O2 is lower. Increased breathing is to compensate for low O2.
What happens to pressure during bronchiectasis?
Pressure decreases because volume is increased from dilation of bronchi. This loss of pressure causes airflow to stop/causes obstruction.
What are the possible etiologies for chronic bronchitis or emphysema?
--Inhibition of antiproteases
What is the problem with a pulmonary edema diagnosis?
Doesn't say anything about the etiology
Sources of Pulmonary Embolism
-Deep Leg Veins
-Mural Thrombi from Right Heart
High risk patients for pulmonary embolism
-Post OP Patients
-Contraceptives/Hormones & Smoking
Prevention methods for pulmonary embolism
-Promote Good Venous Outflow from Legs
What are some complications of a pulmonary edema?
What are the possible compositions of a pulmonary embolism?
Factors in Virchow Triad
-Injuries to endothelial cells
How does hypercoagulability occur?
-Clotting factors start clotting cascade
What are the differences in arteriole and venous regarding blood coagulation?
Arteriole blood moves faster so interactions don't have enough time to coagulate blood
What are the problems with atelectasis?
-Does not allow proper gas exchange
Types of Atelectasis
Etiology of Resorption Atelectasis
-Aspiration of Foreign Objects
Define Compression Atelectasis
External Pressure is exerted on the lung from abdominal upward pressure on diaphragm
Etiology of Compression Atelectasis
-Congestive Heart Failure
-Ascites (Fluids in abdominal cavity)
-Chest/Abdominal Surgery (Lymphatics affected)
Define Contraction Atelectasis
Scars in lung or pleura constrict causing lung to collapse
Etiology of Contraction Atelectasis
-Pleural Scars from chronic inflammation
What are the rules regarding reversibility of atelectasis?
Compression and Resorption are reversible; Contraction is not
Pathophysiology of Atelectasis
-Diminished chest expansion
-Decreased breath sounds
How is atelectasis treated?
-Reinflation of collapsed portion
-Proper ambulation and body positions
How does atelectasis neonatorum occur?
-Immaturity of infant lungs
How could maternal sedation/anesthesia cause atelectasis neonatorum?
Lipophilic anesthesia causes slow muscular movements
What are the factors of pneumoconiosis?
-Nature of dust
-Size (< 1u)
-Other lung diseases
Why do particles need to be less than 1u for pneumoconiosis to occur?
If particle are too big, they get stuck in the bronchus and moved by cilia to the back of the throat where they are expelled or swallowed.
What are the outcomes of pneumoconiosis
-Increased susceptibility to TB
How could bronchopneumonia occur?
-Complication of acute and chronic bronchitis
How does lobar pneumonia work?
-Alveoli are filled w/ fluid exudate
-Caused by a bacterial infection
-Principle inflammatory cells in alveoli is the neutrophil in
What are the stages of lobar pneumonia?
-Congestion & Inflammatory Edema
What could follow pneumonia?
-Right Heart Hypertrophy
-Pleurisy w/ adhesion
How could right heart atrophy follow pneumonia?
Right ventricle pumps into lungs. Therefore, right ventricle needs to pump harder because of stuff in the lungs.
How does polycythemia follow pneumonia?
When body O2 is lower, kidneys will release erythropoietin to increase # of RBC. RBC can't get through scar tissue in lungs which causes blood to become thicker
What is the pathophysiology of a lung tumor?
-Hemoptysis (bloody sputum)
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