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Terms in this set (63)
there are special verbs to describe the actions of people whom you respect. These special verbs are called honorific verbs, because they bestow honor on, or exalt, the person performing the activities.
Honorific verbs; いる、行く、来る have the same conjugation, and are irregular
Honorific verbs; 見る
Honorific verbs; 言う irregular conjugation
Honorific verbs; する irregular conjugation
Honorific verbs; 食べる・飲む
Honorific verbs; くれる
Honorific verbs; ねる
Honorific verbs; 〜ている
The formula to make other verbs into a honorific
お + verb stem + になる
Another way to 〜ている
Giving respectful advice
you may hear the form お + verb stem + ください in public announcements and in the speech of a store attendants.
Examples of respectful advice
please read the instruction
please take a ticket
With most する compound verbs, for example, the prefix ご, is used instead of お. Note also the example with special honorific verbs below. Although such sentences end with ください, it is better to consider that they are (courteously phrased) commands, rather than requests. When somebody tells you お〜ください, you are being encouraged to perform the action for your own good.
please watch out
please help yourself
please have a good rest
〜てくれてありがとう is used to express gratitude to someone and if you want to refer specifically to the action you are grateful for in doing so, you can use the te-form +くれてありがとう.
Thank you for helping me out.
te-form + よかった means "I'm glad that such and such is/was the case" If you want to mention something in the negative in the past before よかった, you can use the negative te-form なくて.
I'm glad that I have studied Japanese.
I'm glad that I did not go to the party yesterday.
〜はずです you can say something is "supposed to be the case," by adding はすです to a sentence ending in the short form.
Extra-modest Expressions; In the last lesson, we learned the special expressions to be used when we want to show respect to another person. Here we will learn to talk modestly of our own actions. We use the verbs below when we want to sound modest and respectful in our speech, to show an extra amount of deference to the listener. These verbs are along always used in long forms, because the purpose of using them is to be polite to the person you are talking to. Having one of these verbs is like ending a sentence with words like sir or ma'am.
You can use these verbs instead of the normal ones on very formal occasions, for example, when you're introduce yourself at a job interview. (私can also be pronounces as わたくし）
You can also use these expressions to talk modestly about your own family or about the company you work for. Extra-modest expressions are frequently used by people in business when they talk to customers. Thus you hear many extra-modest sentences like the examples below, in public address announcements (as in the first example), and in the speech of shop clerks (as in the second).
ございます and でごさいます are very stylized and you rarely hear them outside formal business-related situations.
a train is pulling in.
The bathroom is on the second floor.
Extra modest; いる
Extra modest; 行く、来る
Extra modest; 言う
Extra modest; する
Extra modest; 食べる、飲む
Extra modest; ある
Extra modest; 〜ている
Extra modest; 〜です
Humble Expressions; when you do something out of respect for somebody, you can sometimes describe your action using a verb in the humble pattern "お + verb stem + する." (not all verb are used this way, so you may want to use only the ones you have actually heard used.) You can speak of "humble" meeting, lending to, or borrowing from someone, for example.
I met my professor yesterday
I intend to lend my professor a book
I borrowed a dictionary from my professor (and feel very obliged)
Extra modest; もらう
Extra modest; あげる
うかがう is a verb with which you can portray yourself as humble in the action of visiting and asking questions:
I visited my professor's house.
I asked my professor about the exam.
〜ないで if you can do something without doing something else, the missed action can be mentioned as 〜ない (the short negative present) plus で、note that the present tense of form 〜ない is used for both the present and past actions.
verb + ないで
Last night, I studied without without getting any sleep.
I read a newspaper without using dictionaries.
Questions within Larger Sentences;
You can include a question as a part of a longer sentence and express ideas such as "I don't know when the test is" and "I don't remember whether Mary came to the party."
Use question-word question か｜わかりません
Yes/no question かどうか ｜知っています
Professor Yamashita does not remember what he ate yesterday.
Let's decide whether we will go on a trip this weekend.
Name という item; when you want to talk about a person or a thing that goes by a certain name, but if you believe the person you are talking to is not familiar with it, you can use the following pattern.
(Do you know) a song called "Hana"?
〜やすい/〜にくい you can describe something that is "easy-to-do" by adding the adjective-forming suffix やすい to a verb stem. A verb stem + やすい conjugates like an い-adjective.
〜やすい and 〜にくい tend to focus on the psychological ease or difficulty of doing something when you use them with verbs describing actions. It is therefore odd to use やすい or にくい when the difficulty is defined in terms of a physical or statistical success rate.
Passive Sentences; when you are inconvenienced by something somebody else has done, you can express your dissatisfaction using the passive sentence. Suppose, for example, that you were bothered by your friend's unauthorized use of your car.
I had my car used by a friend of mine
Passive Sentences; sentence structures
(victim)は (villain)に (evil act)
ru-verbs: Drop the final -ru and add -rare-ru
u-verbs: Drop the final -u and add -are-ru
present 読まれる 読まれない
past 読まれた 読まれなかった
present 読まれます 読まれません
past 読まれました 読まれませんでした
〜てある you can use the te-form of a verb + the helping verb ある to characterize situation that has been brought about on purpose by somebody who remains unnamed in the sentence.
The heater is on, because it is cold.
(= the heater was turned on and has been kept that way.)
てある normally assigns the particle が (or は) to the noun, which is usually marked with を. てある almost exclusively goes with a transitive verb.
Compare also てある sentences with ている sentences that describe current states. ている goes with intransitive verbs, in contrast with てある.
The window has been kept closed.
〜間に meaning "while."
A (ている) 間に B meaning B takes places, while A.
There was a phone call while I was taking a bath.
The "A" above can be a noun as well:
A friend came while I was out
The event B must be of short duration and properly contained within the bounds of activity A. If B extends throughout the time when A occurs, we use 間 instead of 間に.
I waited, reading a book, while in combination with adjectives means "to make."
adjective + する; when you want to say "to make something", this pattern is very similar to く/になる, which means "to become".
いい becomes よくする*
Ex. つめたい →冷たくする
to make something cold/colder
to make something simple/simpler
〜てほしい; when you want somebody to do something, you can describe your wish by using the te-from of a verb and adjective ほしい. the person the wish is directed to is marked with the particle に.
(私は) personに verb in te-form ほしい
〜てほしい; when you want to express that you don't want someone to do something you can negate ほしい and say 〜てほしくないです or negate the verb and say 〜ないでほしいです.
I don't want my father to talk about the good old times.
I don't want my host family to speak in English.
Summary of the three ways to say "want"
verb stem + たい
Meaning I want to do
noun が ほしい
meaning I want something
verb in ta-form たがっている
meaning someone wants something
noun を ほしがっている
meaning, another way to say someone wants something
verb te-form + てほしい
meaning I want someone to do something
causative sentence; when you want to describe who makes someone do something, and who lets someone do something.
Basic Structure of causative sentences
(director)は/が (cast)に （action)
The father made/let his child eat vegetables.
If てあげます、てくれる、てもらう follow after a causative verb, in almost every case that means "let".
The professor did not let me speak in English
Causative + てください is asking for permission to do something and to volunteer to do something
When the cast is followed by を instead of に it means 1) the caused action is a reflex like crying and laughing.
2)or when the verb that is turned into causative originally did not call for を:
When the verb do not take を (行く、すわる), and therefore を is up for grabs for marking the cast in the causative sentences.
Please let me do this job.
I accidentally made the kid cry.
Mr. Allen made funny movies that made everyone laugh.
The professor made me go to the bathroom.
That person made me sit there.
verb stem + なさい; this is a command. normal parents use this while talking to their children. since if you're using this it's implied your mature and talking down to someone. you may also seen this pattern found on exam instructions.
Call home everyday.
Fill in the blanks with a word.
〜ば meaning "if" it conjugates like this,
na-adjectives (in the negative):
na-adjectives and nouns in the affirmative, だ either becomes なら or であれば:
*you only use this pattern to express probable things
Verbs in the affirmative:
drop the final -u and add -eba.
verbs in the negative
drop the final I and add ければ.
〜のに is used to connects two facts together, meaning "A, but contrary to expectation B, too"
na appears with 〜のに when "A" is a noun. you also can not connect two things that aren't factual, like suggestions and requests.
〜のように、のような use this pattern to connect two things in terms of similarity. "Noun A のような Noun B" means B is like/similar to A.
I like towns like Kamakura.
you use のように when you want to connect describe an action which is "done in the same way as A" of a characteristic "which is comparable to A."
Mary can swim very well, just like a fish.
Causative-passive sentences are used to express you were harassed or made to, pr talked into, something that you did not want to do.
I want forced to sing.
all u-verbs can conjugate the same as the u-verbs that end in す, it just sounds old fashioned and isn't done that much by native speakers.
You can make causative-passive sentences this way:
for ru-verbs, drop ru then add sase-rare-ru .
u-verbs that end in す
for all other u-verbs, drop the -u and add -asare-ru
sentence structure for causative passive sentences are:
*all both causative-passive and passive sentence have the same sentence structure, but causative sentence for some reason switch the places of the puppet and puppet master.
(puppet)は （puppet master)に （action)
〜ても is used to express B is still true even if A (or is true even if A isn't the case). This pattern is very similar to たら pattern. compare the differences
I will go to the picnic even if it rains
I will not go on a picnic if it rains.
I will not turn on the air conditioner, even if it is hot.
I will turn on the air conditioner, if it is hot.
Even a child will get it.
If you are a child, you will get it.
The difference between ても and のに, one is used to connect two facts (のに), the second one alway contradicting the first fact, while ても has a 'even if' meaning.
how to use ても (negative ても)
ことにする means "decide to do" It follows the short form present tense of a verb. You can use negative verbs as well.
I've decided to buy a car.
ことにしよう is suggesting an activity, with the additional implication that the suggestion is being made after a deliberation. The する here is in it's volitional form.
Let's do it. This summer lets go to Vietnam.
ことにしている means "do something as a regular practice," that is, you have made up your mind that you should do something and have stuck to that determination.
I made it a rule to go to bed every night at 11.
まで meaning "till A." The verb A has to always be in present tense and in the affirmative.
I will not go back to my country, until I become fluent in Japanese.
〜方 follows the stem of a verb and means "the way in which the action is performed" or "how to do..."
およぐ→およぎかた how to swim
考える→考え方 the way people think
Nouns that are marked with other particles when they go with a verb are marked with の before 〜方.
空港への行き方* how to go to the airport
the goal of movement that would normally be marked with に, here can be combined with への.
How to read the kanji; pronunciation
How to use chopsticks
How to take a bath
with compound する verbs, like 勉強する we have:
〜方 is a noun and is followed by は and を.
The way in which Takeshi eats spaghetti is interesting.
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