37 terms

Physiology of Respiration (4)

Chap.3
STUDY
PLAY
torque
a turning or twisting force
elasticity
the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed
gravity
the force that pulls objects toward each other.
spirometer
measures lung volume
manometer
measures pressure
rate flow
air in and out of the lungs (volume)
respiration
the oxygenation of blood and elimination of carbon dioxide
ventilation
movement of air
distribution
300 million alveoli getting oxygen out
perfusion
6 billion capillaries
diffusion
gas exchange across alveolar - capillary membrane
respiratory cycle
12-18 cycles per minute; quiet tidal respiration; 500 mL of air; 1/2 L of air
cartilaginous conducting airway
complete at birth, grows in diameter and length; alveoli will increase 25 million to 300
volumes
amount of air each compartment can hold
capacities
combinations of volumes; functional combinations
Tidal Volume (TV)
volume of air during a cycle (passive breathing)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
volume that can be inhaled (extra volume in)
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
volume that can be expired (extra volume out)
Residual Volume (RV)
volume remaining in the lungs after maximum exhale; dead air space
Vital Capacity (VC)
total volume that can be inspired after a maximum expiriation (IRV + ERV + TV)
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation (ERV + RV)
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
sum of all the volumes (TV + ERV + IRV + RV)
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration
(TV + IRV)
Dead Air Space
inspired air that fills the respiratory tract but never reaches the alveoli of the lungs.
passive forces
elasticity, gravity, torque
active forces
muscles, abdominal viscera is squeezed to push diaphragm downward
measurement of respiration
rate of flow, volume, lung capacity, pressure
abdominal muscles
internal obliques, external obliques, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, abdominal aponeurosis
thoracic muscles
internal intercostals, subcostals, transverse thoracis, serratus posterior inferior
abdominal aponeurosis
point of attachment for all abdominal muscles
alveolar pressure
pressure within the individual alveolus; vocal folds are open (abducted) intraoral and subglottal pressure equals alveolar pressure
interpleural pressure
pressure in the space between the parietal and visceral pleura; stays negative; lungs, inner thorax, and diaphragm are wrapped in lining
subglottal pressure
the air pressure your lungs apply to the inferior aspects of the vocal folds
intraoral pressure
air pressure measured within the oral cavity
respiration for speech
inhalation is 10%; exhalation is 90%
respiration for life
inhalation takes 40%; exhalation takes 60%
checking action
how we monitor, save, reserve exhalation. restrain and check the exhalation to allow for respiratory control during speech. allows us to have a constant airflow (exhale) during speech.