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Animal Anatomy~ Urinary (Part 4)
Terms in this set (45)
maternal component is NOT shed during birth (horse and pig)
___ - placenta can pull free without disrupting endometrium
Loose fitting villi
part of the endometrium IS shed during birth (ruminants)
Partially dedicuate placenta
Partially dedicuate placenta~
erosion of the endometrium during parturition
Close fitting villi-endometrial bond
- 4 layers
- missing the maternal epithelium and maternal connective tissue layer
Fetal = 3 layers of the ___ membrane
- Fetal endothelium (lining of the allantoic blood vessels)
- Fetal connective tissue
- Chorionic epithelium - surface of the chorioallantois
___ = 1 layers
- ___ endothelium (of the blood vessels)
the maternal endometrium IS SHED during parturition
- Allantochorion and maternal endometrium are apposed and exchanging over most of the surface.
- The villi are more diffuse and smaller (harder to see with the naked eye)
- Apposition of the placenta and endometrium is only in discrete areas.
- (Placentome = cotyledon + caruncle)
- ___ - the functional "exchange unit" or area
a raised area on the placenta
cotyledon (placental part)
completely surrounds the cotyledon
- present even when not pregnant
caruncle (maternal part)
- A broad band of apposition around the transverse circumference of the chorioallantois
- Modified ___ gland
- Used to produce milk for newborn offspring
- Undeveloped in males/females - becomes developed in females at puberty
- ___ are the only mammal species in which the males do NOT normally have nipples
Sweat and Rats/Horses
- In domesticated species - located between or slightly ___ to the hind limbs
- Responsive to ___ for development (late pregnancy and during lactation)
Cranial and Hormones
the glandular structure associated with a teat
a protrusion with a hole (or holes) that allows offspring to nurse on milk made by the mamma
grape-like clusters of milk-secreting cells
large ducts that convey the milk from the alveoli to the milk sinus
large milk storage cavity within the teat and the glandular body
Mamma~ Milk Sinus
space in the gland
Mamma~ Milk Sinus
space in the teat
canal leading from the teat sinus to the teat opening
Teat canal (papillary duct)
exit point for the milk. Surrounded by sphincter muscle
- The male gonad
- Produces spermatocytes (sperm cells) and testosterone.
- Size/shape are extremely varied among the animal species
- Normally housed in the ___ - outside of the abdomen
~ This is mostly for temperature regulation - testicles need to be maintained at approx. ___°F below the normal body temperature of the animal to be able to produce sperm
Scrotum and 4
- The structure that houses the mammalian male gonads and associated structures
- It is "kind of" a separate body cavity - although it truly does communicate with the abdomen.
- Structure adjacent to the testicle in the scrotum
- Has a head (beginning), body (middle) and tail (end).
- Made up of one extremely convoluted/coiled tube that connects the testicle to the ___.
- Sperm enter at the head of the epididymis as immature (non-fertile) and by the time they exit at the tail of the epididymis they are fertile mature sperm.
- Extends from the tail of the epididymis and travels along side the body of the epididymis.
- Continues up the spermatic cord into the abdomen - passes through the prostate gland and opens into the pelvic urethra
- From the pelvic bones to the scrotum
- Straight cord-like muscle - elevates the testicles
- Helps with temperature control - closer to the body = warmer
- Muscle within the wall of the scrotum - surrounds the entire scrotum.
- When contracted it forms a thick insulating muscle layer around the testicles
- When relaxed - it becomes thinner - allowing more ___.
- Works in conjunction with the ___ muscle
Ventilation and Cremaster
- Coils of the testicular veins around the testicular artery
- Temperature control mechanism - the veins cool the blood in the artery
- Makes up the bulk of the tissue in the ___ cord
- Looks like a ___ of complex blood vessels at the cranial pole of each testicle
Spermatic and Triangle
- Protective white thick connective tissue that surround only the testicle (not the epididymis)
- Projections of this tunic extend into the testicle - dividing it into lobes.
- These are membranes similar to the plueral membranes of the thorax.
- There is a visceral tunica vaginalis (lays directly on the ___)
- There is a parietal tunica vaginalis (lines the walls of the ___)
Organs and Scrotum
- Failure of one (or both) testicles to descend into the scrotum
- Can be entirely in the abdomen or located partially in the inguinal canal.
- Often retained testicles are afertile due to being maintained at body temperature
- Considered an inheritable trait (these animals should not be bred) - can be fertile due to the descended testicle.
- Vesicular glands (seminal vesicles)
- Bulbourethral glands (cowpers glands)
Accessory Sex Glands
___ of them are paired: Ampullae, Vesicular glands, and the bulbourethral glands
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Animal Anatomy~ Urinary (Part 5)
Animal Anatomy~ Urinary (Part 3)
Animal Anatomy~ Muscles (Part 2)
Animal Anatomy~ Muscles (Part 1)
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