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35 terms

Human Physiology of the Kidney

The urinary system includes
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
The urinary system doesn't include:
adrenal glands
Which of the following waste products excreted in urine is the result of metabolic reactions in muscle cells
What is normally excreted in the urine?
vitamins, drugs, excess ions, uric acid, urea, creatinine
Which of the following is not normally excreted in urine?
protein, glucose
When urine leaves the kidney, it enters the
urinary bladder
Descending limb and ascending limb are best associated with
the loop of Henle
As fluid passes through a nephron it undergoes modification by the cells lining the tubule. In which of the following locations does this modification of filtrate not occur?
the loop of Henle
Which of the following is not normally a component of the glomerular filtrate?

Glomerular filtrate consists primarily of water, excess salts (sodium ions), glucose, and a waste product of the body called urea.
Which of the following is not normally a component of the glomerular filtrate?
red blood cells
Most reabsorption of water and nutrients from the glomerular filtrate occurs in the
Proximal tubule or proximal convoluted tubule
Which of the following processes involved in the formation of urine is especially important in the excretion of toxic substances and drugs
tubular secretion
Which of the following is not reabsorbed into the blood by the process of tubular reabsorption?
Creatinine is not reabsorbed at all as it is too large.

Bicarbonates seem to be reabsorbed, but it isn't. Bicarbonate balances ph. Reabsorption is sensitive to PH, so a drugs which polar will not be reabsorbed
causes the cells of the collecting ducts to be more more permeable to water, thereby increasing reabsorption of water into tissue fluids and blood stream
Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted
What is reabsorbed?
Water and filtered solutes which includes chloride ions, sodium ions, potassium, monosaccharides (glucose). uric acid, and 40-60% urea is reabsorbed.
Most amino acits are reabsorbed?
Which of the followig statements about the renal pyrmids is false
They contain glomeruli
Reabsorption of Water through the tubules occurs by
Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?
regulation of plasma temperature
Antidiuretic hormone promotes water retretention
and the excretion of a highly concentrated urine.
What is not reabsorbed into the blood by the process of tubular reabsorption?
bicarbonate (says it seems to but isn't)
Antidiuretic hormone promotes the retention of water by stimulating
the active transport of sodium.
Aldosterone stimulates sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in
the distal convoluted tubule and the cortical collecting duct.
Substance X has a clearance greater than zero but less than that of inulin. What can you conclude about substance X?
It is filtered and partially reabsorbed.
About 65% of the glomerular ultra filtrate is reabsorbed in
the proximal tubule.
Which of the following factors oppose filtration from the glomerules?
plasma osmotic pressure
The return of molecules from the tubules to the blood is called
Glomerular filtration would be decreased by
decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
The majority of reabsorption occurs in the
proximal convoluted tubule
Concurrent muliplication occurs by the actions of the
loop of Henle
Decreased glumeular filtration would
decrease plasma creatine rate
What is true about the renal pyramids?
They are located in the medula.
They contain collecting ducts.
They empty urine into the calycees
Excessive aldosterone secretion would induce:
Decreased plasma potassium
The ability of the kidneys to remove molecules from the blood plasma by excreting them in the urine. The process of reabsorption decreases renal clearance, while the process of secretion increases renal clearance
Renal Clearance
Which of the following actively transports of sodium and is impermeable to water?
ascending limb of Henle