Upgrade to remove ads
Fluid, Electrolytes, & Bases Study Module
Terms in this set (104)
All of the homeostatic mechanisms that monitor and adjust the composition of body fluids respond to changes in the
Which component makes up the largest portion of the solid components in the body?
Fluid and electrolyte balance is maintained by receptors that directly measure...
overall osmotic concentration
Why is there a difference in the ICF percentage in males versus females?
greater water content of muscle tissue vs. adipose tissue
Which of the following accurately lists the solid components of the human body by weight from greatest to smallest?
Important homeostatic adjustments occur in response to changes in
plasma volume or osmolarity
Which of the following is true regarding ADH and its role in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance?
ADH stimulates water conservation by the kidneys and helps concentrate the urine
Which is the most abundant cation in the ECT?
Which of the following is NOT a principal ion in the extracellular compartments?
Which of the following is not a hormone that mediates adjustments to fluid balance and electrolyte balance?
Which is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
The concentrations of the cations and anions in the ICF & ECF are measured in terms of miliequivalents per liter; represents....
total number of positive and negative electrical charges in a liter of solution
Which of the following is accurate regarding water content?
water makes up about 60 percent of total body weight of adult male
Electrolyte balance requires matching the gain of electrolytes from your diet with loss of electrolyte. Which is a way your body removes electrolytes?
Which of the following is a basic principle in understanding fluid and electrolyte balance?
body content of water or electrolytes will increase if dietary gains exceed losses to environment
What are the principal ions in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?
When the amount of water your gain each day is equal to the amount you lose to the environment, you are in....
Which of the following is an ECF?
-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Which of the following hormones causes the conservation of sodium in the kidneys?
Which of the following accurately describes the role of aldosterone in fluid and electrolyte balance?
aldosterone is secreted in response to an increasing K+ or decreasing Na+ level in blood
Water, by far, is the biggest component of our body fluids. What is the second-largest component of our body fluids?
Osmosis allows water to freely cross plasma membranes except in the _____________.
ascending limb of the nephron loop
What is an electrolyte?
ions released through the dissociation of inorganic compounds
Which of the following is a principal ion in extracellular compartments?
Renin is released in response to..
-decrease in Na+ of renal circulation
-decrease in osmotic concentration tubular fluid at distal convoluted tubule
-decrease plasma volume of BP at juxtaglomerular complex of nephron
The p in pH refers to...
Which of the following is a principal ion in the intracellular compartment?
Whenever the rate of sodium intake or output changes, there is a corresponding gain or loss of water that tends to
keeps the sodium concentration constant
What would happen if you ate a large quantity of salty potato chips without drinking anything?
secretion of ADH would increase
Which of the following represents the largest volume of water lost each day under normal physiological conditions?
When water losses outpace water gains, __________ occurs.
What effect does prelonged sweating have on sodium ion levels?
a loss of sodium ions from the ECF
What is meant by the term metabolic water?
Water generated during oxidative phosphorylation
Potassium ions are found in the highest concentrations in which of the following fluid compartments?
intracellular fluid (ICF)
Which of the following is NOT a basic principle for understanding fluid and electrolyte balance?
water moves in/out of cells by active transport
Which of the following occurs when an individual loses body water?
-plasma volume decreases
-electrolyte concentrations rise
A fluid shift of abnormally large amounts of water from the plasma into the interstitial fluid is called __________.
What is the term for an abnormally high concentration of sodium in the ECF?
Which of the following is NOT a source of water gains?
Which of the following is NOT a cause of hyperkalemia?
decreased blood volume
What would be the response of the body to an increase in ECF volume if you were to drink a large quantity of a sports drink?
-increased water & sodium loss in urine
-natriuretic peptides would be released by cardiac muscle cells
Which of the following would not be associated with a sensation of increased thirst?
decrease in the production of ADH
An abnormally high level of which electrolyte could be caused by hyperparathyroidism and would result in kidney stones, confusion, muscle pain, and cardiac arrhythmias?
Which of the following is a cause of a fluid shift?
-drinking large volume water
Extracellular fluids in the body consist of all of the following...
Sodium ions enter the ECF by crossing the digestive epithelium via
diffusion & active transport
What is the term for an abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood?
What would be the effect on the osmotic concentration of blood plasma if you were in the desert without water for a day?
increase, because of water leaving your body
Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the extracellular fluid volume by...
causing release of ADH
The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by...
imbalance between sodium gains & losses
Homeostasis maintains a stable internal environment, composed of our body fluids. Which is used for stabilizing body fluid volumes?
NOT nutrient balance
The body content of water will rise if __________.
intake exceeds outflow
Deviations outside of the normal pH range due to increases in hydrogen ion concentrations would do all of the following...
decrease the rate of respiration
Which term is correctly matched up with its definition?
salt-an ionic compound consisting of a cation other than hydrogen and an anion other than a hydroxide ion
Which of the following does not occur when the pH increases...
the carboxylate ion can act as a weak base and accept additional H+ ions
Which of the following is NOT a buffer system in the ECF or ICF?
sulfate buffer system
Why must tubular fluid in the nephron be buffered?
-allow secretion of H+ to continue
-prevent pH of urine from becoming too low
-keep H+ from diffusing back into the blood
Which of the following is not accurate regarding the generation of ammonia within kidney tubules?
ammonia is broken down by carbonic anhydrase to form ammonium ions
Severe acidosis (blood pH below 7.0) can be deadly for all following EXCEPT...
hyperventilation leading to a lack of oxygen of critical tissues
What is the kidney's response to acidosis?
Secretion of H+ into urine
What is the term for a substance that opposes a change in pH in a solution and can either remove or replace hydrogen ions?
A pH below .... or above .... is not sustainable for life
What is required for the body to be in acid-base balance?
the production of hydrogen ions is exactly offset by their loss
The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
prevent changes in pH caused by metabolic and fixed acids in the ECF
In a protein buffer system, if the pH increases, the carboxyl group (COOH) of the amino acid dissociates and releases...
a hydrogen ion
After a person consumes a meal, the levels of which ion rise in the blood in response to increased acid production in the stomach?
Which of the following is a volatile acid and is a product of the combination of carbon dioxide and water?
What is the normal pH of ECF?
Acidosis is a more common problem than alkalosis because many acids are by-products of metabolic reactions. Which of the following acids fits that description?
Which buffer is the most important buffer in the extracellular fluid?
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer
The hemoglobin buffer system helps prevent drastic alterations in pH when
the plasma PCO2 is rising/falling
Which of the following is NOT consistent with rising CO2 levels?
additional Na+ ions released
Acid is a natural byproduct of many metabolic processes. Which of the following does not contribute to an increase in H+?
H+ is increased by expiration of CO2 by the lungs
Blood pH is normally between __________.
Which of the following is the best way of describing respiratory compensation?
change in respiratory rate that helps stabilize pH of ECF
If the partial pressure of CO2 rises in the blood, which of the following happens?
a decrease in pH
The elderly have an increased risk of respiratory acidosis because of __________.
a reduction in vital capacity
Which of the following is NOT a response in the regulation of acute respiratory acidosis?
HCO3 ions are secreted into urine
A mismatch between carbon dioxide generation in peripheral tissues and carbon dioxide excretion at the lungs is a
respiratory acid-base disorder
A effects of both respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis are especially serious in cases of ________.
Chronic diarrhea causes a severe loss of bicarbonate ions, resulting in...
A patient presents with a blood pH of 7.5, a PCO2 of 32, and a normal HCO3. What is the likely cause of this patient's abnormal lab values?
panic attacks causing acute respiratory alkalosis
The major causes of metabolic acidosis include all of the following except?
As a result of the aging process, the ability to regulate pH through renal comensation declines due to
a reduction in number of functional nephrons
In which of the following would water represent the highest percentage of body weight?
Prolonged vomitting and loss of stomach acid causes...
The loss of mineral content with age is frequently due to what cause?
loss of muscle & bone mass
Under normal circumstances, during respiratory acidosis the chemoreceptors monitoring the PCO2 of the plasma and CSF will eliminate the problem by calling for...
an increase in pulmonary ventilation rates
Ketone bodies accumulate in the blood during are associated with...
Given the following data, what would be your diagnosis for this patient?
Data: pH 7.32
HCO3 -20 mEq/L
Why is it more likely for an older person to become dehydrated?
-water content is reduced
-reduction sensitivity to ADH & aldosterone with age
-ability to concentrate urine decreases with age
A loss of H+ or a gain in HCO3 can lead to....
Which of the following descriptions is correct?
Respiratory acid-base disorders result from a mismatch between CO2 generation in peripheral tissues and CO2 excretion by the lungs.
Given the following date, what would be your diagnosis for this patient?
Data: pH 7.3
A metabolic alkalosis can be due to...
Which of the following is NOT a response during the regulation of metabolic alkalosis?
respiratory rate is increased
Which of the following might be a response to respiratory acidosis?
increased respiratory rate
A loss of bicarbonate ions can lead to...
Hypercapnia, or an elevation of carbon dioxide in the blood, is a sign of __________.
When a normal pulmonary response does NOT reverse respiratory acidosis, the kidneys respond by __________.
increasing the rate of hydrogen ion secretion into the tubular fluid
Other sets by this creator
GOVT: MODULE Quizzes
Urinary System Review
Other Quizlet sets
Foundations of Programming chapter 12 lesson 2 com…
MGT 471 Chapter 6