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World History Semester 2 Part 1 Chap. 20
Terms in this set (50)
Who was Martin Luther and why is he important?
Was a Protestant reformer who used his writing talent and the printing press to gather support against the Roman Catholic Church. Sparked controversies by pointing out faults of the Roman Catholic Church and advocating for the bible to be translated into vernacular languages instead of only in Latin. Argued that those who just believed in God were saved. Argued against the sales of indulgences. Was eventually called by the Roman emperor to denounce his views, but refused to.
What was the Sale of Indulgences and why was this important to world history?
Were the sales of pardons from penance (self punishment for sins). Could be purchased from the Roman Catholic church, and was a way in which the church gained money. Sparked Martin Luther to fight against the Roman Catholic Church.
What was the ninety five Theses and why was this important to world history?
A document written by Martin Luther and spread throughout Europe thanks to the printing press, condemning the Roman Catholic Church's sales of indulgences.
What was the Protestant Reformation and why was this important to world history?
Was caused by Martin Luther's arguments against the Roman Catholic Church. Broke the religious unity there once was within western Christendom. This chaos influenced rulers to have tighter holds on their countries often referred to as absolute monarchs.
What was the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages controversial at the time and important to world history? Who advocated for this change and why?
Martin Luther advocated for this change. Wanted more people to be able to read this holy text, instead of just having to know Latin. Caused controversy as this went against the major structures of the Roman Catholic Church.
Who was John Calvin and why was he important?
A French lawyer who converted to Protestant Christianity and moved to French-speaking Geneva, Switzerland to avoid Protestant suppression by the French government. Organized a protestant community in Geneva. Wrote the influential document Institutes of the Christian Religion about an overview of the Protestant Religion. Believed in predestination. Created the Calvinists group of individuals supposed to follow strict moral codes.
What was the "elect" and why was this important to world history?
Believed and taught by John Calvin to be those predestined by God to have salvation. This meant to Calvinists that it did not matter the things they did on earth, as their fate was already chosen.
What was "Predestination" and how did this impact world history?
Was believed and taught by John Calvin that individuals were already chosen by God to either be saved or cast down. This meant to Calvinists that their works did not have any meaning as they could not change their fate.
Who were the Calvinists and how did they impact world history?
Individuals who believed in strict moral codes, and predestination. A branch of the Protestant religion, and set up by John Calvin. This religion spread to many other parts of Europe through their missionaries.
What was English Reformation and how did this impact world history?
Occurred when King Henry VIII severed ties with the Roman Catholic Church due to conflict with him and the pope. Henry made himself the head of the Anglican Church. This allowed different religious groups to grow as there was not fear of conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. This growth caused the end and end of hope to return to religious unity within western Christianity in Europe.
What was the Anglican church and why was this important?
Was an English Church, that became the official English Church after King Henry VIII severed English ties to the Roman Catholic church and placed himself at the head of the Anglican Church.
What was the Catholic Reformation and how did this impact world history?
Was a reformation of this Roman Church done to correct abuses in the church. Encouraged a deepening in spirituality, and Protestants to return to this Church. Many important events contributed to this change.
What was the Council of Trent and how did this impact world history?
Was an important contribution to the Roman Catholic Church Reformation. Was a gathering of church officials to discuss and agree on cohesive doctrine and reform. Created new guidelines for church authorities, and caused seminaries and schools to be built to prepare priests.
Who was St. Ignatius of Loyola and why was he important?
Was the founder of the Society of Jesus with a small band of other disciples for the Roman Catholic Church, which was an important society that greatly impacted the Catholic Reformation.
What was the Society of Jesus and how did this impact world history?
Founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, this society of Jesuits were to complete an education in many topics. This helped the Jesuits when serving as missionaries. Were some of the most prominent Christian missionaries throughout Europe during this time period.
What was Witch-hunting and how did this impact world history?
This demonstrated the secular and religious tensions at the time. This was done out of fear of individuals communicating with the devil. As a result, thousands of individuals, particularly elderly women and widows were killed as convicted of witchcraft.
What was the Spanish Armada and how did this impact world history?
A group of 130 ships and thousands of men sent by King Philip II of Spain to dethrone the Protestant Queen Elizabeth of England, and make England return to the Roman Catholic Church. This did not work however, due to English counterattacks.
What was the Thirty Years' War and how did this impact world history?
Lasting from 1618-1648, this was started by the religious tensions rising in Europe as a result of the separation between the Protestant and Roman Catholic Churches. Was the most disruptive conflict before the 20th century. Started after the Holy Roman emperor tried to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism in their Roman Catholic Church. Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Polish, and Russian forces eventually all participated at some point during the war. This led to many deaths and damaged economies.
Who was Charles V and how did he impact world history?
Tried to reestablish the Holy Roman Empire as the primary authority among Europe, but failed. Had control over a lot of land. Did not have much success due to having to put down the Lutheran Churches and other religious uprisings causing trouble, and due to many attacks by neighboring countries not wanting the Holy Roman Empire to return to its peak glory. Eventually gave up and abdicated the throne and split the land between his son Philip II of Spain and his brother Ferdinand.
Who were the Hapsburgs and how did they impact world history?
A rich family with much land in Austria and they dominated the Holy Roman Empire. Through alliances and marriages, they were able to attain lands throughout Europe. Charles V came from this family and tried to continue his family's goal of returning the Holy Roman Empire to its prime.
Who were the "New Monarchs" and how did they impact world history?
Due to limited imperial authority, these new rulers came to rise. It describes the rulers who ruled over Kingdoms that rose.
What was the Spanish Inquisition and how did this impact world history?
Founded by Isabel and Fernando, a license was given to find out those practicing Judaism or Islam, and heresy. Could be ruthless to those found guilty, but often let those go with evidence. This was important as it deterred the practice of religions other than the Roman Catholic Church.
What were Constitutional States and how did they impact world history?
This as important as the governments had a political framework that strengthened the state, and trade. The first states to do this included England and the Netherlands. This meant that authority was shared between the rulers and representative institutions.
What was the English Civil War and how did this impact world history?
Started due to disputes between the King's power and the place of the parliament. Religious tensions also may have added to the start of this. Both King Charles I and Parliament raised armies. The King was executed for tyranny. To settle more chaos, Parliament dethroned King James II and invited his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to take the throne. This helped set the tone for monarchs in England in the future, and their roles in comparison to the Parliament's.
Who were Mary and William of Orange and how did they impact world history?
Assumed the throne, after being invited to do so by the English Parliament, towards the end of the English Civil War as Mary's father King James II was dethroned by Parliament. They made an agreement to work with Parliament and representation of certain groups of citizens in government affairs. Showed the power of the people to replace their government if not in the interests of the people governed.
What were absolute monarchies and how did they impact world history?
Based on the theory that kings were given their authority to rule, aka their divine right, by God. Relied on support of nobles, but the monarchs had the ultimate say.
Who was Cardinal Richelieu and what was his affect on world history?
Was a church official and chief minister to King Louis XIII. Worked behind the backs of nobles to degrade their authority and slowly give more power to the King of France. Built a bureaucracy of commoners with loyalty to the King, and chose officials to enforce royal policy in the provinces.
Who was Louis XIV and what was his affect on world history?
Aka the Sun King ruled over and proclaimed to be himself l'etat c'est moi (the state of France). Ruled by belief of divine right. Entertained his nobles with rich courts, to keep them out of his way in political affairs. Helped with economic development, waged war, and ran France.
What was Versailles and what happened there that was important to world history?
A large estate palace built by King Louis XIV to entertain and house his nobles, so as to keep them out of his political business.
What was the Romanov dynasty and how did this impact world history?
A time of Russian centralized government ruled by tsars. During this time period, much development was made to transform Russia into a great military power.
Who was Peter the Great and what was his impact on world history?
Was a very important Russian tsar who ruled during the Romanov dynasty. He caused more development to be made to make Russia a military powerhouse. He also enforced western European ideals and cultures as well, causing some disgruntlement among citizens with proud Russian cultural history.
Who was Catherine the Great and what was her impact on world history?
Aka Catherine II, sought to make Russia a great power. Worked to improved government efficiency, economy and conditions of Russian's peasantry. Received some rebellion to her rule, but quickly put a stop to it. Took control of parts of Poland, which influenced other countries to have strong and effective governments if they wanted their country to survive.
Who was Yemelian Pugachev and what was his impact on world history?
Resisted Catherine the Great's rule, and was promptly executed after forming a rebellion that killed many nobles and government officials. Was used as a warning for others to not rebel against Catherine the Great.
What was the Peace of Westphalia and how did this impact world history?
Ended the Thirty Year's War by setting terms for the countries involved. Stated that the countries were each independent states, to be regarded as sovereign and equal. They also recognized each country's right to conduct their own political affairs. This marked the end also of the hope of religious unity in Europe. Did not bring an end to war, but it did help with terms.
What was the balance of power and how did this impact world history?
A strategy in which if one state began to rise in power over the others, the other states would alliance to keep it down. This set the tone for Europe being home to independent but competing countries.
What was Capitalism and how did this impact world history from 1500-1700?
Helped grow the economy in the Europe and set the tone for industrialization. Larger gaps between classes started developing and practices of supply and demand, larger production quantities started being put into practice. Also encouraged business owners to look to new ways to get cheaper goods and production.
What was the impact of supply and demand from 1500-1700?
Was used to determine pricing, and helped with determining the advantages and profits that could be gained.
What were joint stock-companies and what was the impact of these from 1500-1700?
They were helpful as they spread the risks (instead of putting eggs in one basket). Basically, allowed investors to have different shares and stocks in different companies, and also helped spur trade and economic growth.
What was the putting-out system and why was it important?
Due to guilds, there were limits on prices and costs. This caused a block for many entrepreneurs to realize large profits. This caused them to look outside of cities and pay farmers to make textiles and goods by delivering to them raw materials, paying them, and then receiving finished products. It was important as it showed the new ways of production to which entrepreneurs were looking towards for business.
What was serfdom and how did this impact world history?
Was very prominent in Russia. Romanovs won support from Russian nobles by promising them cheap labor through this practice. Tied workers to lands, very similar to slavery. As society and populations grew, so did the demand for food, causing a greater market for food and need for serfs.
Who was Adam Smith and why was his important?
A Scottish philosopher who advocated for capitalism, as he thought society would prosper as individuals tried to pursue their own economic interests.
What was the importance of the nuclear family from 1500-1700?
Was important, especially for the basis of the economy and social structure. Love became more important in marriages during this timer period and a greater stress was placed on the connections between extended family. Capitalism a focus on work done as a family, in the home, during this time period.
What was the Ptolemaic universe and why is this important?
Was what was believed to be how the universe was, of the earth being motionless, and all other space orbs orbiting around it. Was developed and believed by Claudius Ptolemy and used from its development in the second century C. E. until the seventeenth century. Tied in with religious beliefs that the heavens were beyond the universe.
Who was Nicholas Copernicus and why was he important?
A Polish astronomer who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, proposing a heliocentric (sun centered) universe. This was controversial with religious beliefs as it went against the heavily believed Ptolemaic universe, which tied in the location of the Heavens beyond the universe. Much later however, his idea of the universe became accepted.
What was Scientific Revolution and how did this impact world history?
The Copernican model of the universe influenced individuals to accept this model and be more involved in math and science, sparking this revolution.
Who was Galileo Galilei, and what was his impact on science and world history? Why was his work controversial?
An Italian mathematician that used a telescope to observe spots on the sun and mountains on the moon, shattering the idea of the universe being perfect and unblemished, as believed in a religious sense. Also saw other stars with the telescope showing the universe was much more larger than previously thought.
Who was Johannes Kepler and why was he important?
A German mathematician who demonstrated that planetary orbits were elliptical and not circular, like they were said to be in the Ptolemaic universe.
Who was Isaac Newton and why was he important?
Used observation and math to construct links between astronomy and mechanics. Wrote the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy arguing the law of universal gravity, motion of planets and other space bodies, and mathematical explanations of laws that ruled over movements on earth. Sparked new insight and new ideas and investigations to be made among other scientists.
Who was William Harvey and why was he important?
Used prejudice and sexist traditions to bias scientific research, further causing a distance between men and women by relating women due to their reproductive system with animals, lesser than males. This sparked negative conclusions about women from men.
Who was Emilie du Chatelet and what was her impact in her world then and in world history?
A female scientist dedicated to the study of Newton and science. Was a French mathematician and physicist and created a translation of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica. Took a step for women towards being included in science.
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