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3D animation Terminology Final Exam Preparation
Preperation for the terminology Final animation
Terms in this set (158)
Italian artistic term used to describe the dramatic effect of contrasting areas of light and dark in an artwork, used to define a light source.
The conscious arrangement of visual elements in a work of art used to convey an idea and hold the viewer's attention.
A quick sketch of an object or figure that captures the action or pose.
Rule of Thirds
The act of dividing a pictorial area into thirds horizontally and vertically in order to locate the best positions for a focal point.
The act of arranging different variations of light and dark to create the illusion of three dimensionality of an object.
The converging of parallel lines in an image that creates the illusion of depth.
The specific hue of an object.
A design element that has both length and direction but no depth.
A 3-dimensional shape having volume and thickness.
A 2-dimensional area enclosed by lines or curves that separates it from other shapes or the background.
Where objects and shapes are placed in either 2D or 3D. Space is independent of what occupies it. Space is usually defined by the dimensions of the 2D surface or the 3D viewpoint.
Refers to the visual appearance or surface quality of a substance or an object.
The Lightness or darkness of an object, group of objects, or scene.
The distribution of the visual weight of objects in a scene.
The arrangement of opposite elements (lights vs. dark colors, rough vs. smooth textures, large vs. small shapes, etc.) in a piece so as to create visual interest, excitement and drama.
The way in which a portion of an image is made more important than another.
The Visual flow through an image.
Repetition created in an image by duplicating the size, shape, position, or other aspects of one or a group of shapes or objects.
Repetitive movement characterized by a series of objects with variations in spacing, size, alternation, and/or progression.
When every individual part of an image or scene adds to the overall pattern.
Very small sketches done quickly in order to brainstorm ideas for an art project.
A form of illustration used to convey an idea for use in fields such as films, video games, animation, or comic books to show the visual development of characters, environments, and other assets before it is put into the final product.
A sequence of drawings, typically with some directions and dialogue, representing the shots planned for a movie, television production, etc.
A rough animation that is used by animators to give some idea about the timing of a sequence.
The format in which the data making up a particular 3D object, scene or file is stored.
A set of sub-objects within a model or scene that move and behave as a single entity, yet can still be split.
Objects or layers that are linked using parent-child relationships.
A level of an image that can be edited independently of the rest of the image.
A point that does not render out, but which is used as a reference for other objects.
A generic term describing any item that can be inserted into and manipulated within a 3D scene.
The convergence of the X,Y, and Z axes in the cartesian Coordinate systems in the center of the grid. These Coordinates are 0,0,0.
Refers to the constraint that uses a parent object to drive the translation and rotation of other objects.
A two dimensional surface in XYZ space.
Refers to the location at which an object can be rotated from.
A set of 3D objects, including the models themselves and the lights and camera that will be used when rendering them out.
A small piece of code created in a 3D software package's own internal programming language, and used to automate common or complex tasks.
An object created by combining two objects using mathematical operators.
A tool used to affect the shape of the geometry; commonly used when preparing a model for animation to replicate natural changes in the appearance of the skin of a character.
A modeling technique in which a two dimensional outline or profile is duplicated outwards along a linear path, and the set of duplicated profiles joined to create a continuous three dimensional surface.
The flat area between edges and vertices on a polygon object.
A record of the previous values of the attributes of a scene, enabling an artist to revert immediately to a particular earlier state.
Lines on a NURBS surfaces connecting points of constant U or V coordinate values, and represent cross sections of the NURBS surface in the U or V directions.
A modeling technique in which a two dimensional profile is duplicated in rotation around a reference axis, and the duplicates joined up to create a continuous three dimensional surface.
A modeling technique in which a continuous three dimensional surface is created by selecting and joining multiple two dimensional cross sections or profiles.
Low Poly Modeling
The processing of creating simplified models with low polygon counts, usually for use in video games, where scenes must be rendered in real time, by software with a limited ability to handle complex models.
The surface geometry of a 3D model, made up of a series of linked geometry elements such as polygons, patches or NURBS surfaces.
Used as a verb, to model means to create virtual 3D surfaces. Used as a noun, it means the 3D object created as the end product of the modeling process.
An imaginary line drawn from the center of a polygon at right angles to the surface to indicate the direction of the face.
(Non-Uniform-Rational B-splines) A method of mathematically describing curves and surfaces characterized by the smooth organic forms they produce.
An area of a NURBS surface enclosed by a span square: the shape created by the intersection of four isoparms, two in the U direction, and two in the V direction.
A geometry element formed by connecting three or more verticles.
An approach for modeling objects in 3D by approximating their surfaces using polygon geometry.
A simple three dimensional form used as the basis for constructive solid geometry solid geometry modeling techniques. Typical primitives include the plane, the cube, the sphere, the cone and the torus.
A shading method in which a simple grid of lines is used to represent the basic contours of the underlying model.
A black and white image used by a 3D software package to simulate the three dimensional detail on the surface of an object.
A image with lighting information based on Tangent space normals, to give low poly objects the illusion of being high detail.
A black and white image that a 3D software packages projects over the surface of a model to generate surface detail that modifies the actual underlying geometry and is not merely a rendering effect.
A set of attributes that determine the ways in which the surface of a model to which they are applied reacts to light.
A texture map that is generated by a mathematical function, rather than a real world bitmap image projected over the surface of an object.
The process by which a two-dimensional texture map is applied over the surface of a three dimensional object, as if it were an image projected from a slide projector.
A node containing texture information; used to assign the texture information to the model.
A surface property of an object that determines the way in which highlights appear on that surface.
An image that is applied to the surface of 3D object to give it detail.
The process of duplicating a texture across the surface of an object.
The Coordinate system used for assigning textures to polygonal models that must be unwrapped and exported to a paint package for texture painting.
An image intended to entirely enclose a scene, either to provide a convincing background, or to project real world lighting or reflection data onto the surface of an object.
The way in which the intensify of a light diminishes with the distance from its source.
A component of the three point lighting system which illuminates shadow areas.
A component of the Three point Lighting System which acts as the primary source of illumination for the scene.
A point or volume that emits light onto a 3D object.
A light within a 3D scene that decreases the illumination on a surface instead of adding to it. Negative Lights can be used to remove 'overspill' in brightly lit scenes.
A component of the Three Point Lighting system which illuminates the edges of objects and helps them stand out from the background.
Three point lighting
A system of CG lighting derived from real world cinematography and photography, in which a scene is illuminated by three light sources.
The ratio of the width of an image to its heights.
Bird's Eye View
This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle, creating a stylized effect.
A virtual viewpoint in 3D space that possesses both position and direction, and the viewer's eye.
Marks the specific location at which the virtual 3D camera is placed to take a shot.
A movement of the virtual camera within a 3D software package analogous to one in real world cinematography.
The path in virtual space along which the camera moves during the course of an animation.
a value of framing where the size of the subject is relatively large and fills most of the frame. for instance a person's head seen from the neck up, or an object seen in detail.
Dof: Depth of Field
The range of acceptable focus in front of and behind the primary focus setting.
An extreme version of the close up, generally magnifying beyond what the human eye would experience in reality, i.e. showing parts of the face or greater detail of an object.
Extreme long shot
A wider frame value in which subjects in the frame are small; a building, cityscape. Useful for establishing shot.
The camera is placed at the subject's height, so if the actor is looking at the lens, he wouldn't have to look up or down.
The camera is higher than the subject and looking down, making the objects seem smaller, and less significant or scary.
A value of framing where the whole subject is relatively small enough to fit the height of the frame. The entire human body is visible, with the head near the top of the frame and the feet near the bottom.
A value of framing in which the subject is a bit smaller than a medium close-up; a human figure from the waist up.
Tilting the camera to suggest imbalance, instability transition, or point-of view.
Over the Shoulder
A shot of someone or something taken from the perspective or camera angle from the shoulder of another person. The back of the shoulder and head of this person is used to frame the image of whatever (or whomever) the camera is pointing toward.
Worm's Eye View
A view of an object from below, as though the observer were a worm, used to look up to something to make an object look tall, strong and mighty.
A method of reducing or preventing rendering artifacts to soften unnaturally presice or stepped edges in a final render.
Use the graphics card to render a preview of a 3D scene within the viewpoints on a 3D software package, omitting certain processor intensive effects such as volumetrics, shadowing and realistic refraction.
The blurring of certain frames between keyframes in a render to make fast movement appear smoother and more realistic.
A timesaving method of checking the progress of a project by rendering it at a lower quality, resolution or frame rate than will be used for the final project.
A technique for rendering that traces the path of every ray of light from its source until it either leaves the scene or becomes too weak to have an effect.
The processing of converting the data stored in a software package into the finished images in the scene.
The size of the final image in pixels when rendering out a scene.
The distance of a particular point or surface from the camera in a scene.
Green Screen Footage
Live footage shot against a backdrop of a single uniform color, usually blue or green, that can be removed for compositing into a computer generated background.
The combining of visual elements from various other sources into one single image or sequence to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene.
A file that stores compositions and references.
The top byte of a 32 bit pixel that is used for data other than color, commonly holding mask data that enables an image to be separated from its background for use in compositing.
Placing one composition inside another.
Often used for stabilization, this is a way to detect and record the movement of one object and apply that data to the movement of another
Defining transparency by a particular color value or luminance value in an image or sequence.
A path that is used as a parameter to modify layer attributes, effects, and properties.
A layer, or any of its channels, that defines transparent areas of that layer or another layer.
The initiation of a movement phase that initiates and prepares for the main action.
The ability of a character to hold the viewer's attention and be relatable.
All actions follow an arc or slightly circular path.
Animation that emphasizes an aspect of movement by making it larger and broader than natural movement; the equivalent of caricature in movement.
Follow through and Overlapping Action
Motion that initiates in one part of the body and sequences from one part to the next; wave-like action along a kinetic chain.
The movement of smaller objects in the scene in reaction to the main movement.
Slow in and out
The idea that objects should not begin motion suddenly, unless it hits a solid object.
Craftsmanship: the basic principles of drawing form, weight, volume solidity and the illusion of three dimension as it applies to animation as well as efficient and well constructed topology and textures in 3D.
The posing of a character or placement of props for visual clarity and graphic impact.
straight Ahead and Pose to Pose
Straight ahead animation starts at the first drawing and works drawing to drawing to the end of a scene. Fast, wild action scenes are done this way. Pose to Pose is more planned out and charted with key drawings done at intervals throughout the scene. Size, volumes, and preparations are controlled better this way, as is the action.
The speed and acceleration of the animation, and how it impacts believable motion.
A series of still images that, when viewed in rapid succession, gives the impression of a moving picture.
One still image in an image sequence.
Is a pop up editor that visually represents the interpolation of keyframes along a curve and can be used to adjust movement without setting new keyframes.
The generation of intermediate transition positions between two keyframes.
The mathematical procedure by which a 3D software package calculates the in-between positions between the two keyframes.
Is a snapshot in time of specific attribute values at a specific time.
The display showing the timing of the key frames in a sequence of animation.
Controls the playback range, keys, and breakdowns within the playback range.
Are handles on keys in the graph Editor that allow the animator to manipulate the curves between keys.
Movement along a straight line in any direction on the X,Y, or Z axis.
A sub area or animation that deals with the simulation of the varied movements of living creatures.
The communication of intent and emotion through behavior.
The process of matching a character's facial movements to a spoken soundtrack during facial animations.
Used to transform the head model of a character between a variety of preset states corresponding to common facial expressions, in order to create the illusion of speech and facial expression.
The shape a mouth will take to form a sound.
a series of frames or illusions drawn in a sequence that loop to create an animation of a walking character.
An object placed inside the skeleton of a character that represents a bone in a rig.
A set of objects and controls that are organized in a hierarchy and control the position and rotations of bones in character animation.
A constraint is a controller that can help to limit an object's position, rotation, or scale through a binding relationship with another objects.
Forward Kinematics (FK)
A character animation technique for controlling the motion of the bones in a chain in which rotations higher in the joint chain affect joints farther down the chain.
Inverse Kinematics (IK)
A character animation technique for controlling the motion of the bones in a chain in which rotations higher in the joint chain affect joints farther up the chain.
A tool which changes the orientation of control over a joint chain so the child determines the rotations of the parent in the joint chain.
Points of articulation between the bones in a character rig.
The process of preparing a character model for animation, including setting up an underlying skeleton, including constraints, controllers and kinematic systems, and linking it to the character mesh.
Changes to the angle of a joint.
The process of binding the surface geometry of a model to the underlying skeleton during rigging.
An underlying network of bones and joints used to define and control the motion of a model during animation.
The process of determining which bone in a skeleton affects which part of a model's surface mesh.
A force that occurs when two moving objects contact and resist each other.
The quantity of matter in an object regardless of its volume or of any forces acting on it, not to be confused with weight.
Hard Body Dynamics
Also known as rigid body dynamics, hard body dynamics simulate the physical behavior of rigid objects that do not deform upon collisions.
Active Rigid Body
An unyielding shape which, unlike conventional surfaces, that reacts to dynamic forces such as fields and collisions.
Passive Rigid Body
A dynamic object that can collide with active rigid bodies, but have no effect on it.
An animation system consisting of a large number of very small points whose behavior is determined using various behavior is determined using various fields and constraints.
Points that display as dots, streaks, spheres, bubbly surfaces, or other items that can be animated with various techniques, such as keys, expressions, and fields.
Nodes that generate moving or stationary particles as an animation plays.
Soft Body Dynamics
The simulation of the behavior of soft bodies that deform on collision with other objects, such as cloth or fluid flows.
Flexible objects comprised of particles and a mesh that can bend, ripple and bulge like natural soft objects when forces are applied to it.
Forces that can be used to animate the motion of particles, soft bodies, rigid bodies, fluids, hair and other dynamic objects.
Saving dynamics simulation data either to memory or to the disk to avoid having to recalculate the simulation every time the timeline is played.
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