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A&P1 Final: 3-5
Terms in this set (240)
It is common to find ___ in compact bone, but they are not seen in spongy bone.
Red Bone Marrow is important in the production of new bone cells.
False, RBM (red bone marrow) is where red blood cells are formed.
Male and Female pelves differ in all of the following features except ___
The female sacrum is longer
Hypercalcemia is rare, but hypocalcemia can result from a wide variety of conditions
Mature bones are remodeled throughout life via a process known as ___.
The atlantoaxial joint is the joint between C1 and C2.
Which of the following bones below does not belong to the appendicular skeleton?
A fracture in which the bone is broken into three or more pieces is called a ____ fracture.
The pubic symphysis can be palpated as a hard prominence above the genitalia.
The _____ is a U-shaped bone that sits above the larynx yet does not articulate with any other bone
Synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys, and liver, ____ is important to the deposition of bone.
Which of the following is not part of the pectoral girdle?
The Sacroiliac Joint
Osteomalacia results in bone brittleness
False, Osteomalacia is abnormal softness of the bone due to depleted calcitriol. It is presented as rickets in children but osteomalacia in adults.
Which bone helps form the coronal, lambdoid, and squamous suture of the skull?
Why does an adult not have as many bones as a child?
Some separate bones gradually fuse with age.
Hypocalcemia can cause ____.
Which of the following bones is adjacent to both the coronal and lambdoid sutures?
Which bone is a part of the skull and not just associated with it?
ALL ribs articulate with the sternum.
False, Floating, and false ribs do not articulate with the sternum. False ribs are attached to costal cartilage and floating ribs have no attachments.
There are ___ bones in a newborn compared with the average number in an adult.
Bone-forming cells are called ___.
A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis . These two areas are the ___ and ____.
Articular Cartilage and Epiphyseal Plate
Trochanters are unique to the femur.
Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except ____.
A vertebrae is considered a long bone
False,Vertebrae are irregular bones
The ____ houses the pituitary gland (hypophysis) and is found in the ____.
Sella Turcica ; Sphenoid Bone
The hardness of bone comes from ___, whereas ____ provides some degree of flexibility.
Hydroxyapatite and other minerals: proteins
The spinous process has a bifid tip in most ____ vertebrae.
A newborn passes through the ___ of the mother during birth.
Men have one fewer rib than women.
False, Men and women have the same number of ribs.
Which of the following is NOT true of a thoracic vertebrae
It has a pair of transverse foramina.
Which of the following is NOT found on a typical vertebrae
The ____ belongs to the thoracic cage, whereas the ___ belongs to the pectoral girdle.
Intramembranous ossification is common in children, whereas endochondral ossification is typical in young adults
False, Those are the two methods of bone development in fetuses and infants.
The ____ does not belong to the femur.
Which if the following is NOT a function of the skeleton?
Storage of red blood cells.
The hemopoietic tissue in a bone is otherwise known as myeloid tissue.
The result of blood calcium and phosphate levels being too low for normal deposition is softness of the bones called ____ in children and ____ in adults.
Closed reduction is the surgical realignment of the parts of the broken bone.
False, Closed reduction is where the bone will repair itself without surgery. Fixed in a CLOSED environment.
Osseous tissue is a(n) ______ tissue.
A long bone is covered externally with a sheath called the ___ , whereas the marrow cavity is lined with the ____
Periosteum ; endosteum
The spaces found within the concentric lamellae are called ___ and they contain _____
Lacunae ; osteocytes
The acetabulum articulates with the ____
Which of the following is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?
Which of the following is a sesamoid bone?
Which of the following bones forms the bulk of the hard palate?
Spines of the ___ form a part of the pelvic outlet.
The cortex of the long bone's diaphysis is made of ____
Sinuses are absent from which bone.
Medial and Lateral condyles of the femur are involved in the hip joint
False, they are articulated with the lower portion of the leg.
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ____ which would otherwise inhibit ____.
Estrogen; osteoclast activity
In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is ____ which is replaced by bone.
Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture?
Hematoma formation -> soft callus formation -> hard callus formation ->bone remodeling
The styloid process of the radius can be palpated proximal to the thumb
Which of the following exemplifies a (+) feedback process happening in a bone mineral deposition?
The first few crystals that form attract more calcium and phosphate.
The average number of bones in an adult skeleton is __
Fontanelle are ___ in an infant
Spaces between the unfused cranial bones
Blood Ca2+ deficiency stimulates ____ secretion, which leads to ____
Parathyroid hormone ; increased osteoclast activity
Which cranial bone(s) are separate right and left bones at birth but generally fuse by the age of 5?
Frontal bone and mandible
Osteogenic cells are bone stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts
False , stem cells found in the endosteum and inner layer of periosteum, not in the bone.
Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means _____
Abnormal calcification of a tissue
A hole through a bone that usually allows passage for nerves and blood vessels is called a(n) _____.
Healthy paranasal sinuses are filled with mucus.
False, A healthy paranasal sinus has mucus membrane but is air filled!
The ischium is posterior to the pubis and inferior to the ilium.
Which of the following articulates with the vertebral column?
ALL the bones below belong to the axial skeleton, except the _____ which belongs to the appendicular skeleton.
Which of the following does not put women at risk for hypocalcemia?
Removal of the thyroid gland
The acromion is an anatomical feature of the ____
Condyles are found in the axial skeleton only
False , Condyles are found on many portions of the appendicular skeleton, such as the lower limbs
Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition, in which long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the _____
The thin layer of slightly denser spongy bone that separates an adults epiphysis from the diaphysis is called the ____
The center cavity off the diaphysis of a long bone is called the _____
A rounded knob that articulates with another bone is called a(n) ____
Bone protrudes through the skin in a fracture called ____
The ____ is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plates where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
Which of the following is not considered a weight bearing bone
Chondrocytes multiply in the zone of ____ of the metaphysics.
Phosphate is necessary for all of the following EXCEPT ____
Red Bone Marrow does NOT contain ______
Yellow bone marrow
Which of the following marks the boundaries of a sarcomere?
The ______ is not part of the tibiofemoral joints.
posterior tibiofibular ligament
Under normal circumstances, the wrist can be hyperextended, but the elbow cannot.
During muscle contraction, a single myosin head consumes ATP at a rate of about ___ ATP per second.
The process of engaging more motor units to increase the strength of a muscle contraction is called _____.
A dark band formed by parallel thick filaments that partly overlap the thin filaments is known as an H band.
A volleyball player depends on the gastrocnemius muscles for plantar flexion, whereas a marathon runner depends more on the soleus muscles for the same action. What characteristic of the soleus muscles makes this so?
They make more use of aerobic respiration.
The main stabilizer of the shoulder is the biceps brachii muscle.
Which of the following is an accurate comparison of skeletal muscle to smooth muscle?
Smooth muscle contracts and relaxes more slowly.
A clinician induces contraction of the gastrocnemius and soleus and notices that the foot does not plantarflex as expected. Which of the following would be a logical diagnosis?
Ruptured calcaneal tendon
After taking their wedding vows, a bride and groom often ceremonially use which of the following muscles before walking away from the altar?
A meniscus is a type of bursa seen in the space between the femur and tibia.
Which muscle acting on the arm assists in deep inspiration?
A baseball pitcher who injures one of his SITS muscles most commonly sustains tears to the tendon of which muscle?
Some smooth muscle is autorhythmic.
A heavyset middle-aged insurance salesman, who doesn't exercise often, accepts his friend's invitation to a pickup basketball game. When attempting a jump shop, he falls to the ground in pain, grasping at the calf of his leg. There is an enormous bulge in his leg immediately below the popliteal fossa, and he is unable to plantarflex that foot. Most likely he has injured his _____ and the bulge in his _____.
calcaneal tendon ; triceps surae.
Which of the following individuals would have more mitochondria in her skeletal muscle?
A 22-years old soccer player
The study of the muscular is known as _____.
If one nerve stimulus arrives at a muscle fiber so soon that the fiber has only partially relaxed from the previous twitch, the most likely result will be ______.
Tendinous intersections divide the _____ into segments that are externally visible on the abdomen of a well-muscled person.
Which of the following is true concerning isotonic eccentric contraction?
The muscle lengthens but tension remains constant
The rectus abdominis is a ____ muscle, while the rectus femoris is a ______ muscle.
Which of the following has the largest mitochondria?
The joint between the left and right parietal bones is called the _____
The training regimen of a competitive weight lifter is designed partly to ______.
increase the average number of myofibrils per muscle fiber.
Clinically, dystrophin is the most important noncontractile protein to occur in muscle fibers.
Skeletal muscle is called ____ because it is usually subject to conscious control.
The ______ attaches to the zygomatic arch and also to the angle of the mandible.
Which of the following is true regarding the levator scapulae?
It flexes the neck if the scapula is fixed.
Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called _____
Which muscle attaches to the manubrium and the thyroid cartilage, and aids in singing low notes?
Which of the following is an intrinsic muscle of the hand?
A deficiency of acetylcholine receptors leads to muscle paralysis in myasthenia gravis.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber.
In lifting a heavyweight from the floor, one should use the power of the _______ in order to avoid straining the lower back.
knee and hip extensors
Which fibers are primarily responsible for producing lactate?
Type IIB fast glycolytic fibers.
One example of a multiaxial joint is the ______ joint.
Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezoids?
The rotator cuff tendons enclose the shoulder joint on all sides except ______, which partly explains the nature of most shoulder dislocations.
The _____ is not found in the elbow.
distal radioulnar joint
The triad of a muscle fiber consists of _____.
two terminal cisterns and one T tubule.
If you stand on tiptoes to reach something high, you are performing _____ at the ankle.
The protein that acts as a calcium receptor in skeletal muscles is ______.
When a nurse draws blood, it is not uncommon for the needle to penetrate which muscle near the cubital region?
The most moveable joints are _____ joints.
While sitting at your desk, you drop your pencil onto the floor. You bend over to pick up the pencil. In order to straighten up and continue your exam, you must use which of the following muscles?
Skeletal muscle is attached to bones in a way that aligns proteins in an overly-stretch (lengthened) position. This lengthening facilitates the shortening of contractions.
Bursae are structures associated with fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints.
Which muscle can contract without the need for nerve stimulation?
Smooth and cardiac muscle
What do suture, gomphosis, and syndesmoses have in common?
These are all fibrous joints.
What is the normal primary action of the sternocleidomastoid?
Rotate the head
Group of muscles is separated by which of the following?
Which of the following muscles is innervated by the obturator nerve?
Which of the following is true regarding joints that are first-class levers?
Their mechanical advantage may be either greater or less than 1.0
Which of the following correctly state the proximal and distal attachments of the sternocleidomastoid?
The sternal manubrium and medial one-third of clavicle; mastoid process and lateral half of superior nuchal line.
Which of the following is the most stable joint?
A sacral fracture affecting the S3 and S4 nerve roots would result in a person having difficulty evacuating the bowels.
The coxal joint is a ball-and-socket joint, in which the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
Suppose you cup your hands to hold some water. To limit the amount of leaking through your hands, this action would most likely require ____.
Adduction of the fingers.
Some joints become synostoses by replacing _____ and _____.
fibers ; bone
Which of the following structures prevents knee hyperextension?
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
Aerobic respiration produces approximately ____ more ATPs per glucose molecule than glycolysis does.
A monoaxial joint, like the elbow, is capable of which one of the following movements?
Flexion and extension
The union of the proximal and middle phalanges forms ____ joints.
An ______ muscle is contained within a region where an _____ muscle acts upon one region but has an attachment elsewhere.
Which of the following is the largest and most complex diarthrosis in the body?
Athletes who train at high altitudes increase their red blood cell count, which increases their oxygen supply during exercise. Increased oxygen supply results in _____.
longer aerobic respiration.
Which of the following muscles is not externally visible on the trunk of the body?
The least moveable joints are the _____ joint.
Bony joints are the most common type of the joints.
A joint with mechanical advantage greater than 1.0 has increased speed.
In skeletal muscle, the term that describes the alternating light and dark band is _____
The talocrural joint is formed by the union of the_____, ______, and the ____ .
tibia, the fibula, talus
Radial (lateral) and ulnar (medial) collateral ligaments restrict side-to-side movements of the ______ joint.
What is the longest muscle in the human body?
Which of the following muscles flexes the thigh at the hip?
What happens when acetylcholine stimulates its receptors in the neuromuscular junctions?
The permeability of the sarcolemma to Na+ increases
80% of the lactate produced by skeletal muscle is converted to pyruvate by the _____
The semitendinosus is an example of what muscle shape?
The forearm acts as a third-class lever during flexion of the elbow.
Which of the following fractures would be the least likely to cause a spinal cord injury?
A fracture of vertebrae L4
Nerve fibers are insulated from one another by _______
During the absolute refractory period which of the following is true?
NO stimulus of any strength will trigger a new action potential
Most nerves are motor nerves
False, Most nerves are mixed nerves (motor and sensory)
Which of the following nerves originates from the lumbosacral plexus?
Accumulation of Ca 2+ in the axon terminal is called _____ and probably plays an important role in ______.
Synaptic facilitation; short-term memory
Norepinephrine is a monoamine
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the space between the ____
Arachnoid mater and pia mater.
Each portion of the spinal cord, from which a spinal nerve emerges, is called a "segment" of the cord.
Place the following events of synaptic transmission at an adrenergic synapse in order: A- ATP is concerned to cAMP. B- The cell's metabolism is altered. C- G protein binds adenylate cyclase. D-The G Protein dissociates. E- NE binds the receptor
The spinal cord is vitally important in processing complex information.
False, Seen as "information highway". Sends complex information provided by stimuli to the brain so it can be processed then acted upon.
What is another name for the autonomic nervous system
Visceral motor division
Which neurotransmitter excites skeletal muscle and inhibits cardiac muscle?
A nerve fiber is enclosed in its own fibrous sleeve called perineurium
False, insulated by endoneurium
In an action potential, which event directly follows repolarization
Hyperpolarization of the membrane.
The cervical plexus is the origin of the ______ nerve(s).
A dermatome is a nerve innervating a specific region in the skin.
False, an area of skin in which sensory nerves derive from a single spinal nerve root
In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar ligament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to _____ and the hamstring to _______.
A _______ is a cordlike organ composed with numerous _____
The opening of _____ gates produces an _____
You go to the movies after a long day and you begin to nod off as soon as the movie starts/ Your head starts to lower a little, but a reflex causes your head to rise. This is called the ____ reflex.
Which one of the following best describes the order of the somatic reflex?
Somatic receptor → afferent nerve fiber → interneuron → efferent nerve fiber → skeletal muscle
Ependymal cells line the inner cavities of the CNS.
If the potassium leak channels were suddenly blocked in a resting neuron, what would happen to its resting membrane potential?
It would become more positive.
Most metabolic and regulatory functions in a neuron happen where?
When a neuron is stimulated, Na+ gates open and allow Na+ to exit the cell.
False , Na enters, K exit
Which of the following are effectors?
In which part of a neuron is the postsynaptic membrane usually found?
Tendon organs are ___
Conduction of a nerve impulse would be the fastest in which of the following?
A large diameter myelinated fiber
Where do most local potentials form in a neuron?
What occurs during hyperpolarization of a neuron membrane?
Potassium ions are leaving the cell
Which of these happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission?
G protein dissociates from the NE receptor
The connective tissue that surrounds a nerve fascicle is called the _____
The signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in the ____ tracts.
What type of neural circuit is best for producing a prolonged output?
A reverberating circuit
Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyperpolarize when at its RMP?
An inflow of chloride
Which of the following is not a function associated with the spinal cord?
Protect neurons in both the ascending and descending tracts
How does a neuron transport enzyme produced in the neurosoma to its axon terminals?
Some _____ neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas ____ neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.
Reflex arcs that only use two neurons are called ____ reflex arcs.
Which of these happens first in a cholinergic synaptic transmission?
The synaptic vesicles release acetylcholine
Oligodendrocytes serve the same purpose in the CNS that satellite cells do in the PNS.
False, Have the same function as Schwann cells: to create a myelin sheath.
Which of the following is comprised of anterior rami from C5-T1
Second-order neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the ____
Nerve fibers in a given white matter tract similar in origin, destination, and function
Which body system(s) is/are dedicated to maintaining stable internal conditions by detecting and responding to stimuli?
Nervous and endocrine
Nitric Oxide (NO) acts as a neuromodulator by altering synaptic function
While a neuron membrane is depolarizing its ____
Sodium gates are fully open
A bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the ____
A patient with no sensation in the left thumb would most likely have nerve damage of the ____ spinal nerve
A chlorogenic synapse uses _____ as its neurotransmitter
The stretch reflex is the tendency of a muscle to stretch when it is over contracted.
False, Stretch reflex is to contract when the muscle is stretched.
Which glial cell is found wrapped around nerve fibers in the PNS?
A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back. This is called the ____ reflex.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (PNS) are associated with which of the following?
Hyperpolarization of the cell membrane
Most neurons have multiple dendrites.
Which of the following is true regarding the tendon reflex?
It prevents over contraction of a muscle.
In the brain, neurons are more abundant than neuroglia
False, Neuroglia outnumber neurons 10 to 1
A traveling wave of excitation is known as a(n) ______
A ganglion is a swelling along a nerve containing the cell bodies of peripheral neurons.
A stretch reflex is often accompanied by reciprocal inhibition.
The tendon reflex is the inhibition of a muscle's contraction that occurs when its tendon is excessively stretched.
Which of the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglion?
A reflex in which the sensory input and motor output on opposite sides of the spinal cord is called a(n) ____ reflex arc
What is the most common type of neuron?
Which of the following groups of muscles has the most muscle spindles?
Muscles of the hand
What would be the best explanation for why myelinated fibers conduct signals faster than unmyelinated fibers?
Diffusion of ions along axoplasm is faster
The fibers that carry the action potentials that cause the skeletal muscle to contract are ___.
Alpha motor neurons
A ganglion is a ____
A cluster of neuromas in the PNS
Acetylcholine triggers the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP only in neurons of the PNS.
False, ACh does not trigger cAMP
The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by _____
Gamma motor neurons
The anterior rami of the spinal nerves form nerve plexuses in all regions except the ___
A neuron can receive thousands of EPSPs from different neurons and responds to triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called _____
Which of the following is not considered a region of the spinal cord?
Which of the following is not a property of reflexes?
Reflexes do not require a stimuli
The term "nerve fiber" refers to a(n) ____
While both systems maintain homeostasis, how does the nervous system differ from the endocrine system?
The nervous system releases neurotransmitters between the cells, while the endocrine system releases hormones into the blood.
The _____ division tends to prepare the body for action.
The middle layer of the meninges is called the ____
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