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Divergent boundaries will have deep earthquakes.
Refraction of seismic waves in the earth's interior causes them to follow _____________ paths.
In the image above, which of numbers indicates the epicenter? (three cirlces)
The lag time is the difference between the arrival of the P-wave and the arrival of the S-wave at a station.
__________ are body waves. (1)
The string of foci found below a volcanic arc is called a Wadati-Benioff zone.
Travel-time graphs and a lag time may be used to determine the distance to an epicenter.
__________ are body waves.
The outer core is composed of ________________.
nickel and iron
The fast seismic zone at the base of crust is called the ________________.
mohorovicic discontinuity (moho)
The gravity anomaly over a large karst cave will be _______________.
negative (a little lower)
The larger the lag time, the closer you are to the epicenter.
__________ are surface waves.
The image above shows a _____________. Hint: include the box and stylus when considering your answer.
______________ are not able to pass through the outer core because it is liquid.
__________ is based on a measurement of the S-wave amplitude and the P-S wave lag time.
An epicenter is the geographic location of the focus projected to the Earth's surface.
The s-wave shadow occurs between ______________________ arc degrees from the focus of an earthquake.
103 and 180
The p-wave shadow is caused by ____________________.
refraction of waves
The mantle is mainly composed of _________________.
silicate minerals enriched in Mg, Fe, and Ca
The uppermost part of the mantle is rigid (strong) and called the _________________.
The seismogram is the recorded waveform.
Every year globally there are about ________ magnitude one earthquakes.
__________ travel at the highest velocity.
At divergent boundaries we expect __________ earthquakes.
The earth's magnetic field is generated in the outer core.
The p-wave shadow extends ______________________ from the focus of an earthquake.
103 arc degrees to 143 degrees
The deepest earthquakes occur under mid-ocean ridges.
Each magnitude on the Richter scale increases the seismic intensity by a factor of 10.
Seismic waves that are bent as they pass from one material to another are ___________________.
__________ are surface waves. (2)
At transform boundaries we expect __________ earthquakes.
Together, the uppermost mantle and the crust make up the ___________________.
Foreshocks occur before a larger seismic event and on the fault plane that will rupture.
Earth's gravity is smaller (negative anomaly) over ocean basins.
The largest magnitude earthquakes typically occur at ___________.
S-waves are not transmitted through the outer core.
__________ is qualitative estimate of earthquake damage.
The weaker ductile layer below the lithosphere is the _________________.
The average thickness of the continental crust is _________.
The energy needed to create an earthquake is stored as elastic strain in the Earth's crust.
How many seismograms are needed to evaluate the location of an epicenter?
________________ waves are able to pass through all layers of the earth.
The earthquake focus is the location on the fault plane where the rupture began.
The crust is mainly composed of _________________.
silicate minerals enriched in K, Na, and Al
The gravity anomaly over a lead ore body will be ________________.
positive (a little higher)
The seismograph is a device used to record earthquake waves.
Foreshocks occur after a larger seismic event.
The outermost layer of the earth is the __________________.
Travel-time graphs show how wave velocity varies with distance from the epicenter.
The largest recorded earthquake was ~ 9.5.
__________ travel at the slowest velocity.
Travel-time graphs and a lag time may be used to determine the latitude and longitude of an epicenter.
__________ is a measurement of rock strength, fault plane area, and crustal displacement.
P-waves and S-waves slow down in the asthenosphere because this layer of the mantle weak and may have a small % of melt.
Earthquakes can occur to a depth of ~____________km.
__________ travel through the Earth's interior.
Periodically the earth's magnetic core reverses it polarity in what is called a magnetic reversal.
A majority of earthquakes occur at plate boundaries.
Earthquakes can occur everywhere in the mantle.
The ___________ is located directly below the crust and extends to 2900 km depth.
The deepest earthquakes occur at __________.
The large forces needed to create earthquakes are the result of tectonic plate movement.
Earthquakes form when rocks break or slip in the Earth's lithosphere.
The Richter magnitude scale is infinite.
At subduction zones we expect ___________ earthquakes.
all of the above
A magnitude 10 earthquake is impossible.
At which type of convergent boundary will deep earthquakes be missing.
The s-wave shadow is caused by wave reflection.
Earth's gravity is larger (positive anomaly) where the crust is _______________.
both of the above
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