34 terms

AP US Chapters 8-10

History Final Review

Terms in this set (...)

Election of 1800
Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie. Led to 12th Amendment: Required electoral college to vote separately for Pres and VP
The American System
a home-market system developed by Henry Clay that had a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a network of roads and canals
Protective Tariff
Raised duties to meet need for increased revenue and demand for greater protection. Defended industries established during War of 1812
Second Bank of the United States
Similar to 1st bank but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
Internal Improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund ____, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Era of Good Feelings
Terms of President James Monroe in which Democratic-Republicans were only political party, and people therefore assumed that political discord had evaporated
John Marshall
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Marbury v. Madison
Establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Judicial Review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Monroe Doctrine
Forbade further colonization in the Americas and declared that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
War of 1812
Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army
Jacksonian democracy
The idea of spreading political power to the people and ensuring majority rule.
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his Presidency. When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson's supporters raged that a corrupt bargain had cheated Jackson of presidency.
The Maysville Veto
Jackson vetoed the bill, said that if improvements were made without an amendment, they must be national projects
Argued that Tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. Advocated nullification- theory that US could invalidate any unconstitutional law. Thought states were sovereign.
Bank War
Jackson vs. Bank & Biddle; Jackson begins taking out funds and putting them into pet banks, successfully "killing" the bank; leads to fluctuation in economy and eventual panic
Election of 1840
Whigs united, borrowing campaign tactics from the Democrats and inventing many of their own. Resulted in Whig victory and a truly national two-party system.
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional. Court generally reflected Jacksonian democracy and Marshall's Court
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Hamilton-Burr duel
After ____ lost to ___ as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of
NY. When he lost, he blamed ___ (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory
remarks that cost him the election. He challenged him to a duel... and killed him :O
Orders in Council
Britain blockaded the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations
Non-Intercourse Act
repealed the Embargo Act, and reestablished trade with all nations except Great Britain. Would trade w/ either if the other one ceased to violate neutral rights
Macon's Bill #2
Designed to discourage the British and the French from interfering with US commerce, by bribing either the England or France in repealing their restrictions on neutral shipping; who ever obliged, the US would halt all commerce with the other nation.
War Hawks
Those nationalist members of Congress who strongly supported war with Great Britain, included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions
Results of War of 1812
Huge surge of nationalism.Andrew Jackson becomes a war hero which pushes him into the presidency. He changes the complexion of democracy. Federalists die out. U.S. gains foreign respect.
Hartford Convention
A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. Discussed secession!
Henry Clay
Persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Webster Hayne Debate
___ argues for sanctity of Union- states created Union and have right to nullify, state supremacy. ____ argues that states have bond w/ fed govt that nullification or secession can't break
William Garrison
Influential abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. Argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded The Liberator
Frederick Douglass
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North
Sojourner Truth
American abolitionist and feminist. Escaped from slavery to become a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women.