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Renaissance and Reformation (and maybe some absolutsim) part 2

second part to this really long study guide to use for the final (I studied everything and got an A on the test so it works) Furthermore, there is no rhyme or reason to this I am just putting up a bunch of crud, and I might put up more on absolutism later. But for now reformation and renaissance, but speaking of which there might be some absolutism stuff in here... sorry my bad, if I can I will put up something to go with the freakin long terms list that Mr. Vass gave us, but right now just this
STUDY
PLAY
new monarchs
new in the sense of royal authority and national purpose, monarch was institution that linked everyone together, these monarchs seized the mazimum of the Justinian code
rulers utilized the aggressive methods implied by this to build their government, they began the work of reducing violence, curbing unruly nobles, troublesome elements, and establishing domestic order, rulers preffered to be feared then loved
renaissance political ideas
Henry VII
English king, he summoned parliment to confirm laws, distrusted nobility, rogal council handed any business he put before it- executive, legislative, and judicial, he married Cathering of Aragon in 1501, died in 1509 and left the country at peace both domestically and internationally
Catherine of Aragon
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, married Henry VII in 1501, after Henry VII she married Henry VIII
reconquista
Wars of northern christian kingdoms to control entire penninsula
Isabella married him in 1464 and ruled with him from 1474-1516
Ferdinand, Spainish
hermandades
repressed violence with savage punishments, dishanded in 1498,1331,1355, 1391
New Christians
Jewish converts
Inquisition
judicial inquiry with ruthless severity
War of the Roses
1455-1471
York's Edward IV (r. 1461-1483)
defeated Lancastrian forces, after 1471, began to reconstruct monarchy, English
two rulers used ruthlessness, efficiency and sercrecy, Tudors
Richard III (r.1483-1485) Henry VII (r.1485-1509), English
Concordat of Bologna
Pragmatic Sanction's assertaion of superiority of general council over papcy, approved pope's right to recieve first years income of new bishops and abbots, and French ruler gets to select French bishop and abbots, agreement reached between Francis I and Pope Leo X in 1516
Louis XII
(r.1498-1515) married Anne of Brittany , French
Louis XI
(r.1461-1483) treacherous character, Renaissance prince, used money as means of unification, invaded Burgandy in 1477,promoted new industries, French
Charles VII
(r. 1422-1461) revived french monarchy and began France's recovery from 100 years war, by 1453 French armies had expelled english from French soil, remodeled army to create permanent one. french
gabelle
french tax on salt
taille
french land tax
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
created in 1438, stated superiority of state over pope
Rome
located in Italy, pope and papacy (head of Roman Catholic Church) was (and still is) located here
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519, famous renaissance artisit, I think Leah's doing her for her NHD project
Jerome Bosch
1450-1516, Flemish painter who frequently used religious themes but in combination with grotesque fantasies, colorful imagery, and peasant folk legend, (ex: Death and the Miser)
Papal States
located in Italy, centrial Italy, during Babylonian Captivity had come over sway of important Roman families, Borgias
Pope Alexander VI
(r.1492-1503) reasserted papal authority in papal lands aided by his son Cesare Borgia, he was a Borgia (if ya couldn't tell)
Cesare Borgia
became hero of Machiavelli's The Prince, united penninsula by ruthlessly conquering and exacting total obdeience from principalities
For My Kooky Proffesor Vass
Florence, Milan, Kingdom of Naples, Papal states, Venice (way to remember the 5 powerful city states that dominated Italian Peninsula that controlled the sammler city states and competed amongst themselves for control of the smaller city states)
Puritans
Those who wanted to purify the English Church of its Catholic-like elements, they desire the elimination of Bishops
Michelangelo
1475-1564, another famous renaissance artist
John Calvin
Frenchman, 1509-1564, born in Noyon, studied law, believed God had specifically called him to reform the church, converted to Protestantism in 1533, in 1541 he began to reform Geneva, embodied ideas in the Instities of Christian religion (1559), believed that in the absolute soveriegnty of God and in the weakness of humans
Predestination
belief that God has determined where everyone will be
Protestatism in Ireland
In 1536 on orders from London, the Irish parliament approved English laws severing church from Rome, making King soveriegn, most Irish remained Catholic
Francious Rabelais
1490-1553, French Humanist, wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel which were serialized between 1532 and 1552, great comic masterpieces with gross and robust humor, father of Rabelaisian
Lutheranism in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
Monarchy took initiative in religious reformation
Gustavus Vasa (r.1523-1560)
in 1520 led revolt against Denmark and Sweden became independent
Olaus Petri
lived from 1493 to 1552, translated New Testament into Swedish
Christian III
secularized churhc property and set up Lutherin Church
English Reformation
When Henry the VIII wanted to marry Anne Boleyn in 1527 and to anull his marriaged to catherine of Aragon he split from the church because the Pope Clement VII wouldn't let him so he removed the English church from the Papl juridiction
Act of Restraing Appeals
1533, declared king highest authority
Act for Submission of Clergy
1534, required churchmen to submiss to the king
Supremacy Act
1534, made king head of the church
Humanism
"New Learning" termed used by Florentine rhetorican and historian Lenardo Bruni (13370-1444), comes from humanitas, emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities
1500-1527
High Renaissance
Signori Oligarchies
in 15th century political power and elite cultural centered around these types of governments, rule of merchant aristocracies, possessed small constitutions and through schemes exercised judicial, executing, and legislative functins in government and pretended to observe law but actualy manipulated it to hide their illegal actions
Ulrich Zwingli
1484-1531, Swiss humanist, introduced Reformation in Switzerland, convinced that Christian life rested on scripture which were the pure words of God, attacked indulgences, the mass, the institution of monasticism, and clereical celibacy
Printing Press
made in 1415 bu Gutenburg
Rogier Vander Weyden
1399/1400-1464, considered artistic equal Italian painters, flemish
The Coutier
published in 1528, written by Baldassare Castiglione, sought to train, dicipline, and fashioin young men into courtly gentlemen
Raphael
Renaissance painter, 1483-1520
John Knox(1505-1572)
in 1559 set to reform church, in 1560 persuaded Scottish parliment to enact legislation ending papal authority, wrote book of Common Order in 1564
Presbyters
ministers that governed church
Francesco Petrarch
1304-1374, thought he was living at the beginning of a new age, poet and humanist
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
German Augustinian friar, launched Protestant Reformation, born at Eisleben in Saxony, entered monastory in 1505, was a proffessor at Wittenburg,translated New Testament into German in 1523, on January 3, 1521 he was supposed to be excommunicated
95 Theses
Posted on Wittenburg Church Castle on October 31, 1517, arguement was written against indulgences, (undermine the seriusness of teh sacrament of penance, competed with the preaching of the gospel and downplayed importance of charity) by December 1517 it was translated into German
Communes
sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economical independence from local nobles, merchant guilds
Renaissance
1350-1600
Italian Renaissance
led the way commerically, Venice,Kingdom of Napes, Milan, Florence, Papal states, minor states, overseas trade, merchants, banking, more secular than Northern Renaissance
Venice Invasion
1508, Cousin of Chalres VIII- Louis XII formed league of Cambrai with Pople and german emperor Maximilian
Invasion of Italy
1494, Led be French King Charles VIII, inagurated new period in Italian and European power politics, Italy became focus of internation ambitions
Political Impact of Luther's believes
Protestant believes were more appealing politically because of the extra money that would have originally of been spent on catholic church
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Charles V agreed to this, offically recognizing Lutheranism, each prince could determine their own territory's religion
Transubstatiation
by consecrating words of the priest during mass the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ (yum)
Consubstatntiation
belief that its only a spiritual change
Charles V
fell heir to vast conglomeratin of territories, inherited Spain from his mother together with her possessins in the new world and Spanish comisions in Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and Naples, from his father he inherited the Hapsburg lands in Austria, southern Germany, the low countries, and Franche' Comete in east France
Rise of Habspurg Dynasty
In 1477 Maximilian I of Hapsburg married Mary of Burgandy, treaty of Arras in 1482, declared French Burgandy a part of France marrigeed between Maximillian and Mary united Austria and Hapsburg "Other nations rage war, you, Austria, marry"
Milan
despots and Sforza family ruled harshly here and dominated smaller cities of the north
The Prince
1513, written by Niccolo Machiavelli, about political power and the way it really is
Northern Renaissance
more spiritual, humanist stressed Biblical themes and this is where the reformation took place (Holland, France, Switzerland, and Germany)
Katy
Girl who is freaking tired because this took so long