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second part to this really long study guide to use for the final (I studied everything and got an A on the test so it works) Furthermore, there is no rhyme or reason to this I am just putting up a bunch of crud, and I might put up more on absolutism later. But for now reformation and renaissance, but speaking of which there might be some absolutism stuff in here... sorry my bad, if I can I will put up something to go with the freakin long terms list that Mr. Vass gave us, but right now just this

new monarchs

new in the sense of royal authority and national purpose, monarch was institution that linked everyone together, these monarchs seized the mazimum of the Justinian code

rulers utilized the aggressive methods implied by this to build their government, they began the work of reducing violence, curbing unruly nobles, troublesome elements, and establishing domestic order, rulers preffered to be feared then loved

renaissance political ideas

Henry VII

English king, he summoned parliment to confirm laws, distrusted nobility, rogal council handed any business he put before it- executive, legislative, and judicial, he married Cathering of Aragon in 1501, died in 1509 and left the country at peace both domestically and internationally

Catherine of Aragon

daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, married Henry VII in 1501, after Henry VII she married Henry VIII


Wars of northern christian kingdoms to control entire penninsula

Isabella married him in 1464 and ruled with him from 1474-1516

Ferdinand, Spainish


repressed violence with savage punishments, dishanded in 1498,1331,1355, 1391

New Christians

Jewish converts


judicial inquiry with ruthless severity

War of the Roses


York's Edward IV (r. 1461-1483)

defeated Lancastrian forces, after 1471, began to reconstruct monarchy, English

two rulers used ruthlessness, efficiency and sercrecy, Tudors

Richard III (r.1483-1485) Henry VII (r.1485-1509), English

Concordat of Bologna

Pragmatic Sanction's assertaion of superiority of general council over papcy, approved pope's right to recieve first years income of new bishops and abbots, and French ruler gets to select French bishop and abbots, agreement reached between Francis I and Pope Leo X in 1516

Louis XII

(r.1498-1515) married Anne of Brittany , French

Louis XI

(r.1461-1483) treacherous character, Renaissance prince, used money as means of unification, invaded Burgandy in 1477,promoted new industries, French

Charles VII

(r. 1422-1461) revived french monarchy and began France's recovery from 100 years war, by 1453 French armies had expelled english from French soil, remodeled army to create permanent one. french


french tax on salt


french land tax

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

created in 1438, stated superiority of state over pope


located in Italy, pope and papacy (head of Roman Catholic Church) was (and still is) located here

Leonardo da Vinci

1452-1519, famous renaissance artisit, I think Leah's doing her for her NHD project

Jerome Bosch

1450-1516, Flemish painter who frequently used religious themes but in combination with grotesque fantasies, colorful imagery, and peasant folk legend, (ex: Death and the Miser)

Papal States

located in Italy, centrial Italy, during Babylonian Captivity had come over sway of important Roman families, Borgias

Pope Alexander VI

(r.1492-1503) reasserted papal authority in papal lands aided by his son Cesare Borgia, he was a Borgia (if ya couldn't tell)

Cesare Borgia

became hero of Machiavelli's The Prince, united penninsula by ruthlessly conquering and exacting total obdeience from principalities

For My Kooky Proffesor Vass

Florence, Milan, Kingdom of Naples, Papal states, Venice (way to remember the 5 powerful city states that dominated Italian Peninsula that controlled the sammler city states and competed amongst themselves for control of the smaller city states)


Those who wanted to purify the English Church of its Catholic-like elements, they desire the elimination of Bishops


1475-1564, another famous renaissance artist

John Calvin

Frenchman, 1509-1564, born in Noyon, studied law, believed God had specifically called him to reform the church, converted to Protestantism in 1533, in 1541 he began to reform Geneva, embodied ideas in the Instities of Christian religion (1559), believed that in the absolute soveriegnty of God and in the weakness of humans


belief that God has determined where everyone will be

Protestatism in Ireland

In 1536 on orders from London, the Irish parliament approved English laws severing church from Rome, making King soveriegn, most Irish remained Catholic

Francious Rabelais

1490-1553, French Humanist, wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel which were serialized between 1532 and 1552, great comic masterpieces with gross and robust humor, father of Rabelaisian

Lutheranism in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark

Monarchy took initiative in religious reformation

Gustavus Vasa (r.1523-1560)

in 1520 led revolt against Denmark and Sweden became independent

Olaus Petri

lived from 1493 to 1552, translated New Testament into Swedish

Christian III

secularized churhc property and set up Lutherin Church

English Reformation

When Henry the VIII wanted to marry Anne Boleyn in 1527 and to anull his marriaged to catherine of Aragon he split from the church because the Pope Clement VII wouldn't let him so he removed the English church from the Papl juridiction

Act of Restraing Appeals

1533, declared king highest authority

Act for Submission of Clergy

1534, required churchmen to submiss to the king

Supremacy Act

1534, made king head of the church


"New Learning" termed used by Florentine rhetorican and historian Lenardo Bruni (13370-1444), comes from humanitas, emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities


High Renaissance

Signori Oligarchies

in 15th century political power and elite cultural centered around these types of governments, rule of merchant aristocracies, possessed small constitutions and through schemes exercised judicial, executing, and legislative functins in government and pretended to observe law but actualy manipulated it to hide their illegal actions

Ulrich Zwingli

1484-1531, Swiss humanist, introduced Reformation in Switzerland, convinced that Christian life rested on scripture which were the pure words of God, attacked indulgences, the mass, the institution of monasticism, and clereical celibacy

Printing Press

made in 1415 bu Gutenburg

Rogier Vander Weyden

1399/1400-1464, considered artistic equal Italian painters, flemish

The Coutier

published in 1528, written by Baldassare Castiglione, sought to train, dicipline, and fashioin young men into courtly gentlemen


Renaissance painter, 1483-1520

John Knox(1505-1572)

in 1559 set to reform church, in 1560 persuaded Scottish parliment to enact legislation ending papal authority, wrote book of Common Order in 1564


ministers that governed church

Francesco Petrarch

1304-1374, thought he was living at the beginning of a new age, poet and humanist

Martin Luther (1483-1546)

German Augustinian friar, launched Protestant Reformation, born at Eisleben in Saxony, entered monastory in 1505, was a proffessor at Wittenburg,translated New Testament into German in 1523, on January 3, 1521 he was supposed to be excommunicated

95 Theses

Posted on Wittenburg Church Castle on October 31, 1517, arguement was written against indulgences, (undermine the seriusness of teh sacrament of penance, competed with the preaching of the gospel and downplayed importance of charity) by December 1517 it was translated into German


sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economical independence from local nobles, merchant guilds



Italian Renaissance

led the way commerically, Venice,Kingdom of Napes, Milan, Florence, Papal states, minor states, overseas trade, merchants, banking, more secular than Northern Renaissance

Venice Invasion

1508, Cousin of Chalres VIII- Louis XII formed league of Cambrai with Pople and german emperor Maximilian

Invasion of Italy

1494, Led be French King Charles VIII, inagurated new period in Italian and European power politics, Italy became focus of internation ambitions

Political Impact of Luther's believes

Protestant believes were more appealing politically because of the extra money that would have originally of been spent on catholic church

Peace of Augsburg (1555)

Charles V agreed to this, offically recognizing Lutheranism, each prince could determine their own territory's religion


by consecrating words of the priest during mass the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ (yum)


belief that its only a spiritual change

Charles V

fell heir to vast conglomeratin of territories, inherited Spain from his mother together with her possessins in the new world and Spanish comisions in Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and Naples, from his father he inherited the Hapsburg lands in Austria, southern Germany, the low countries, and Franche' Comete in east France

Rise of Habspurg Dynasty

In 1477 Maximilian I of Hapsburg married Mary of Burgandy, treaty of Arras in 1482, declared French Burgandy a part of France marrigeed between Maximillian and Mary united Austria and Hapsburg "Other nations rage war, you, Austria, marry"


despots and Sforza family ruled harshly here and dominated smaller cities of the north

The Prince

1513, written by Niccolo Machiavelli, about political power and the way it really is

Northern Renaissance

more spiritual, humanist stressed Biblical themes and this is where the reformation took place (Holland, France, Switzerland, and Germany)


Girl who is freaking tired because this took so long

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