Environmental and Occupational Health Chapter 5

What are some medical advances in the late 19th and 20th century in the field of infectious diseases?
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Terms in this set (27)
-endemic to central and South America, and Africa
- transmitted by the anopheles mosquito
- symptoms: fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, shaking chills, jaundice, possible vomiting and diarrhea (9-14 days after)
- control and eradication: DDT. regular use of suppressive drugs in endemic areas, avoidance of blood from donors in endemic areas
- 3 forms: visceral, mucocutaneous, cutaneous
- reservoir: wilde rodents, humans, carnivores
- environmental factors responsible for increase: movement of human population into endemic areas, increasing urbanization, extension of agriculture products into endemic areas, elimination of breeding areas
- control methods: periodic application of long-lasting insecticides to dwelling units, use of screens in the home, elimination of breeding areas, destruction of rodent burrows
- transmitted by flea bites from rodents
- morbidity and case fatality rates are high bur when treated early with antibiotics survival increases
- reservoirs: wild rodents
- bubonic plague symptoms: fever, chills, headache, and progress into lymphadenitis
- pneumonic plague symptoms: respiratory droplets from an infected person can transfer plague to others
- environmental control: accomplished by encouraging the public to avoid enzootic areas like rodent burrows and direct contact with rodents
Viral Hemorrhagic Feversdescribes a severe multi-system syndrome where the overall vascular system is damaged and the body's ability to regulate itself is impaired.Anthropoid-Borne Viral Diseasesterm denotes viral diseases that can be acquired when blood-feeding arthropod vectors infect a human hostWhat are the vectors and clinal symptoms of anthropoid-borne viral diseases?Vectors: ticks, sandflies, biting midges, and mosquitos Symptoms: acute CNS illness ranging from mild aeseptic meningitis and encephalitis; acute self-limited fevers, with and without exanthum and headaches- may give rise to more serious illness with CNS involvement or hemorrhages; hemorrhgaic fevers, capillary leakage, shock, and high case fatality; polyarthritis and rash, with or without fever and of variable durationCharacteristics and symptoms of arboviral encephalitisassociated with acute inflammation of sections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges Mild case symptoms: fever, headache, aeseptic meningitis Serious case symptoms: headache, high fever, disorientation, com, and occasionally convulsions, paralysis, and deathEmerging zoonosesrefers to zoonotic diseases that are caused by either apparently new agents that occur in locales or species that previously did not appear to be affected by these known agentsWhat are factors contributing to the reemerging zoonoses and infectious diseases?migration of human populations within tropical and subtropical areas, increases in international travel, population growth in urbanization/overcrowding, overuse of antibiotics/pesticides, lack of clean drinking water, climate changeCharacteristics and symptoms of hantaviruses pulmonary syndrome-severe and sometimes fatal respiratory condition transmitted by rodent vectors - transmitted when aerolized urine and droppings from infected rodents are inhaled - vectors: cotton rat, rice rat, white-footed deer mouse, deer mouseCharacteristics, variations, and symptoms of Dengue Fever- Variations: dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome - classic DF: benign with symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, eye pain, muscle pain, joint pain, rash, mild bleeding - DHF: life threatening with symptoms of abdominal pain and a bleeding phenomena - DSS: includes symptoms of DHF and is associated with shock - transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito -reemergence is attributed to lack of effective mosquito control, rapid population growth and urbanization, poor to nonexistent water and human waste treatmentCharacteristics and symptoms of zika virus-mosquito-borne - linked with development of febrile rash and adverse brith outcomes in pregnant women (microcephaly and abnormalities of the brain) - transmitted sexually and through blood transfusionsCharacteristics and symptoms of the Ebola virus-highly fatal and acute disease caused by ebola virus - sudden onset of fever, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, and could involve internal or external bleedingCharacteristics and symptoms of Rift Valley Fever- transmitted by mosquitos - human infection produces either no obvious symptoms or mild illness with fever and liver abnormality - sever form: a hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or ocular diseaseSymptoms of monkey pox- similar but milder than smallpox - begins with fever headache, muscle aches, and exhaustion, also causes lymph nodes to swell distinguishing it from smallpoxCharacteristics and symptoms of Tularemia (Rabbit Fever)- common in rural areas and is linked with rodents, rabbits, and mares - symptoms: skin ulcers, swollen lymph glands, painful eyes, sore throat -inhalation can cause sudden fever, chills, headaches, muscle pains, joint pain, dry cough, progressive weaknessCharacteristics and symptoms of Rabies (hydrophobia)- disease of the CNS transmitted by saliva from the bites of infected animals - early symptoms: apprehension, fever, headache, malaise - later symptoms: progresses to paralysis, hallucinations, swallowing difficulties, and hydrophobia - treatment: intensive medical care and vaccination administrationCharacteristics and symptoms of Anthrax- most commonly occurs among cattle, sheep, goats, and other herbivores - cutaneous symptoms: itching, skin lesions, development of black eschar, possible spread to lymph nodes - inhalation symptoms: begins with symptoms that mimic an upper respiratory infection which then progresses to respiratory distress, fever, and shock - gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea, anorexia, and abdominal painCharacteristics of Influenza- Influenza A: reservoirs are wild and aquatic birds and can infect humans, ducks, and chickens - Influenza B: confined to humans - Influenza C: cause of mild illness and sporadic outbreaks in humansTwo methods fro control and prevention of mosquito borne diseases1. monitor for the presence of viruses in sentinel chickens and birds 2. consists of removing standing sources of water to prevent easy breeding