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Georgia Milestones 8th Science
Terms in this set (150)
wavelengths of light striking a substance are retained and not reflected, refracted or diffracted.
When an object changes speed or direction or both due to unbalanced forces
the distance from the crest or trough to the mid point of the wave; varies with energy and loudness (sound)
smallest part that makes up matter
how much mass an atom has; due to the sum of its protons and neutrons in its nucleus
The number of protons in the atom
when two forces acting on an object are equal
temperature at which liquid begins to turn in to gas state
a battery or source of electrons inb a DC circuit
a force that makes a projectile to follow a curved path
a reaction between two or more substances that produces a new substance
energy that is emitted or given off from a chemical change
A chemical formula that indicates the relative proportions (ratio) of atoms of each element
One or two letter symbol that represents an element
a path that electricity follows
an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit
an electric circuit through which current can flow
a physical system which doesn't exchange any matter oe energy with its surroundings
is a measure of how easy a substance will set on fire (react with oxygen)
something that is composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
two or more simple machines working together to make work easier
the action of compressing or being squeezed together
the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance
a material through which energy such as heat or electricity can pass through
the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas.
the highest point of a transverse wave
the amount of electrons flowing through an electric circuit.
how packed or squeezed the object's mass is for its volume
the process by which a beam of light disperses (prism) or a system of waves is spread out
The amount of space between two things
how little energy is used to do some work
a determined attempt to do work
physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force of electromagnetic properties (positive and negative charges)
a force given off by electricity
energy made available by the flow of electric charges
a form of energy resulting from charged particles (negative and positive)
range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation; includes radiowaves, microwaves, infrared, visible, UV, xray & gamma ray.
waves which can transfer energy without a medium (through the vacuum of outer space)
matter that flows in a gas or liquid form
strength or power exerted on an object
the rate at which something occurs; number of waves passing per second - determines pitch of sound
force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other
the point on which a lever rests or is supported and on which it pivots (moves)
free flowing fluid without definite shape or volume; the molecules have more energy and are moving very quickly compared to a liquid or solid
a force which tries to pull two objects toward each other because of mass; it's effect on mass causes weight
vertical columns on the periodic table; elements share similar properties
transfer of thermal energy by the motion of atoms or molecules
describes the exchange of thermal energy from one object to another
a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle; ex. handicapped ramp
the process of the heat energy moving from one place to another
the resistance to any change in an objects state of motion; due to an object's mass;
object in which energy such as electric current and heat can NOT flow freely
is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy transferred (or work done)
energy of motion
law of conservation of energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transformed into another form
law of conservation of matter (mass)
States that mass is neither created nor destroyed in any ordinary chemical reaction.
The mass (and total atoms of each type) in the products and reactants during a chemical reaction must always be equal .
law of universal gravitation
This force of attraction is directly dependent upon the masses of both objects, the distance between the mass and the speed they are moving
a transparent, structure in the eye (or a man made substance) that, along with the cornea, helps to refract or bend light to be focused on the retina.
a rigid bar resting on a pivot, used to help move a heavy or firmly fixed load with one end when pressure is applied to the other.
transfers radiant energy through empty space; the electromagnetic spectrum
Incompressible fluid that takes the shape of its container but retains a constant volume
forces which are applied to a structure
The wave transports energy through the medium without permanently transporting matter.
Force of attraction or repulsion between the North and South Poles of a magnet.
The area of magnetic force around a magnet
The attraction or repulsion between magnetic poles
A property of some materials in which there is a force of repulsion or attraction between certain like and unlike poles
Amount of matter in an object.
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Ratio of the output force exerted by a machine to the input force applied to the machine.
Kinetic or potential energy associated with the motion or position of an object
A wave that requires a medium through which to travel.
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
Are element with properties that fall between those of metals and nonmetals; they separate them on the Periodic Table.
Material through which a mechanical wave must travel
Any of various opaque, fusible, ductile, and typically lustrous substances that are good conductors of electricity and heat.
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. May be homogenous (uniform) or heterogeneous (nonuniform).
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
Newton's First Law
an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an unbalanced force. This is known as inertia.
Newton's Second Law
the net force of an object is equal to the product of it's acceleration and mass.
Newton's Third Law
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
A family of non-reactive gases (family 18) on the periodic table.
Elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
an incomplete electrical circuit in which no current flows
A system in which both energy and matter are exchanged with the surroundings.
impossible to see through; preventing the passage of light
A circuit that contains more than one path for current flow - if one bulb goes out the others get brighter
A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
A horizontal row of elements on the periodic table; share the same number of electron energy shells
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
electrically charged gas with extremely high molecular energy
Energy that is stored and held in readiness; maybe gravitational, chemical, elastic or nuclear
(physics) the rate of doing work
A type of lever that is a wheel with a groove in its rim, which is used to change the direction or multiply a force exerted by a rope or cable.
A sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
Heat transfer by electromagnetic waves
An area where the particles in a medium are spread out.
A chemical property that describes how likely an element is to form bonds with other elements.
light energy that bounces off objects; angle of incidence equals angle of reflection
A place or object used for comparison to determine if an object is in motion.
Bending of light as it changes speeds passing from one medium to another
used to alert you in situations that need special attention during labs.
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
A circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide a single path of current - if one bulb goes out, all others go out.
a machine with few moving parts, making it easier to do work (there are 6: lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw)
The state of matter having a fixed volume and fixed shape - allows energy like heat and waves to transfer fastest
Energy caused by an object's vibrations passing through a medium
Distance travelled per unit time
the imbalance of electric charge on an object
The loss of static electricity as electric charges transfer from one object to another.
A buildup of charges on an object.
A mechanical device used to connect or disconnect a component or circuit.
A measure of the average energy of random motion of particles of matter.
Heat energy transfer by conduction, convection or radiation
An increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased
A measure of change (measured in units of seconds) or progression of events from the past to the present and future
some light pass through, but can't see through clearly (not transparent); like wax paper or privacy glass
allows light to pass through easily, like clear glass
A wave in which the vibration is at right angles to the direction in which the wave is traveling.
Lowest point of a wave.
A change in size or type of energy from one form to another.
matter moving from one place to another
Forces that produce a nonzero net force, which changes an object's motion
A variable that tells you both speed and direction.
Electromagnetic radiation that can be seen with the unaided eye
A liquid's resistance to flowing
A measure of power equal to one joule of work per second.
A measure of radiant energy (for example light, radio waves) calculated by the distance from one wave crest to the next
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
A substance that tapers to a thin edge and is used for splitting, raising heavy bodies, or for tightening by being driven into something.
A measure of the force of gravity on an object; varies on other planets depending on size
wheel and axle
Two different sized circular objects that are attached together and turn as one.
A result of a force moving an object a certain distance.
A particular preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific.
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with evolution of heat
Amount of space occupied by an object
unit of work; one newtons force applied for a distance of 1 meter
The relationship between voltage, current and resistance in a circuit: V = I x R
Generating an electric current in a wire by moving it through a magnetic field (occurs in a generator)
an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
product of mass x velocity; an objects tendency to resist change in its motion;
the number of times a machine increases the input force (makes work easier)
closeness of a measurement to its true value
how consistently a instrument or person produces accurate measurements
representation of an object or event
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